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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2008), Pages 1561-1892

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Exact and Effective Pair-Wise Potential for Protein-Ligand Interactions Obtained from a Semiempirical Energy Partition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1652-1664; doi:10.3390/ijms9091652
Received: 14 February 2008 / Revised: 28 July 2008 / Accepted: 28 August 2008 / Published: 2 September 2008
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the partition method introduced by Carvalho and Melo was used to study the complex between Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI-I) and glycerol at the AM1 level. An effective potential, combining non-bonding and polarization plus charge transfer (PLCT) terms, was introduced
[...] Read more.
In this work, the partition method introduced by Carvalho and Melo was used to study the complex between Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI-I) and glycerol at the AM1 level. An effective potential, combining non-bonding and polarization plus charge transfer (PLCT) terms, was introduced to evaluate the magnitude of the interaction between each amino acid and the ligand. In this case study, the nonbonding–PLCT noncompensation characterizes the stabilization energy of the association process in study. The main residues (Gly29, Cys3 and Arg5) with net attractive effects and Arg1 (with a net repulsive effect), responsible by the stability of protein-ligand complex, are associated with large nonbonding energies non-compensated by PLCT effects. The results obtained enable us to conclude that the present decomposition scheme can be used for understanding the cohesive phenomena in proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemical Bond and Bonding)
Open AccessArticle Pyrolysis of Softwood Carbohydrates in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1665-1675; doi:10.3390/ijms9091665
Received: 6 May 2008 / Revised: 24 July 2008 / Accepted: 15 August 2008 / Published: 2 September 2008
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood), was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5°C/min) was applied to the heating until a reactor
[...] Read more.
In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood), was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5°C/min) was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 °C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levoglucosan was the dominant product in the cellulose pyrolysis oil. Acetic acid was found in the highest concentrations in both the galactoglucomannan and in the pine wood pyrolysis oils. Acetic acid is most likely formed by removal of O-acetyl groups from mannose units present in GGM structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels R&D: Securing the Planet's Future Energy Needs)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Citrinin Production in Penicillium citrinum Cultures by Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1676-1684; doi:10.3390/ijms9091676
Received: 27 June 2008 / Revised: 8 August 2008 / Accepted: 29 August 2008 / Published: 2 September 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the
[...] Read more.
The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Influence of Carbon-Carbon Multiple Bonds on the Solvolyses of Tertiary Alkyl Halides: a Grunwald-Winstein Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1704-1716; doi:10.3390/ijms9091704
Received: 17 June 2008 / Revised: 4 August 2008 / Accepted: 26 August 2008 / Published: 4 September 2008
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of carbon-carbon multiple bonds on the solvolyses of 3-chloro-3-methylbutyne (1), 2-chloro-2-phenylpropane (2), 2-bromo-2-methyl-1-phenylpropane (3), 4-chloro-4-methyl-2-pentyne (4) and 2-chloro-2-methylbutane (5) is critically evaluated through the extended Grunwald-Winstein equation. Substrates 1, 3 and 5 lead to correlations with unexpected negative sensitivity, h,
[...] Read more.
The influence of carbon-carbon multiple bonds on the solvolyses of 3-chloro-3-methylbutyne (1), 2-chloro-2-phenylpropane (2), 2-bromo-2-methyl-1-phenylpropane (3), 4-chloro-4-methyl-2-pentyne (4) and 2-chloro-2-methylbutane (5) is critically evaluated through the extended Grunwald-Winstein equation. Substrates 1, 3 and 5 lead to correlations with unexpected negative sensitivity, h, to changes in the aromatic ring parameter, I. It is claimed that I is not a pure parameter, reflecting also some solvent nucleophilicity, NOTs, character. In substrates 2 and 4 the possibility of rearside solvation is reduced due to steric hindrance and/or cation stabilization and the best found correlations involve only the solvent ionizing power, Y, and I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grunwald-Winstein Equations – 60 Years & Counting)
Open AccessArticle Are the Genes nadA and norB Involved in Formation of Aflatoxin G1?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1717-1729; doi:10.3390/ijms9091717
Received: 6 August 2008 / Revised: 26 August 2008 / Accepted: 4 September 2008 / Published: 9 September 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins, the most toxic and carcinogenic family of fungal secondary metabolites, are frequent contaminants of foods intended for human consumption. Previous studies showed that formation of G-group aflatoxins (AFs) from Omethylsterigmatocystin (OMST) by certain Aspergillus species involves oxidation by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases,
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins, the most toxic and carcinogenic family of fungal secondary metabolites, are frequent contaminants of foods intended for human consumption. Previous studies showed that formation of G-group aflatoxins (AFs) from Omethylsterigmatocystin (OMST) by certain Aspergillus species involves oxidation by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, OrdA (AflQ) and CypA (AflU). However, some of the steps in the conversion have not yet been fully defined. Extracts of Aspergillus parasiticus disruption mutants of the OYE-FMN binding domain reductase-encoding gene nadA (aflY) contained a 386 Da AFG1 precursor. A compound with this mass was predicted as the product of sequential OrdA and CypA oxidation of OMST. Increased amounts of a 362 Da alcohol, the presumptive product of NadA reduction, accumulate in extracts of fungi with disrupted aryl alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene norB. These results show that biosynthesis of AFG1 involves NadA reduction and NorB oxidation. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water and of ATP Hydrolysis Energy in the Power Strokes of Molecular Motors in Protein Structures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1730-1752; doi:10.3390/ijms9091730
Received: 26 July 2008 / Revised: 29 August 2008 / Accepted: 8 September 2008 / Published: 9 September 2008
PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick’s work, energetics were revised by Joule’s experiments which founded the First Law of
[...] Read more.
Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick’s work, energetics were revised by Joule’s experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Crosslinking Analysis of GAP-43 Interactions with Other Proteins in Differentiated N1E-115 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1753-1771; doi:10.3390/ijms9091753
Received: 13 August 2008 / Revised: 3 September 2008 / Accepted: 13 September 2008 / Published: 16 September 2008
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been suggested that GAP-43 (growth-associated protein) binds to various proteins in growing neurons as part of its mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis in vivo, differentiated N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells were labeled with [35S]-amino acids and were treated with
[...] Read more.
It has been suggested that GAP-43 (growth-associated protein) binds to various proteins in growing neurons as part of its mechanism of action. To test this hypothesis in vivo, differentiated N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells were labeled with [35S]-amino acids and were treated with a cleavable crosslinking reagent. The cells were lysed in detergent and the lysates were centrifuged at 100,000 x g to isolate crosslinked complexes. Following cleavage of the crosslinks and analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, it was found that the crosslinker increased the level of various proteins, and particularly actin, in this pellet fraction. However, GAP-43 was not present, suggesting that GAP-43 was not extensively crosslinked to proteins of the cytoskeleton and membrane skeleton and did not sediment with them. GAP-43 also did not sediment with the membrane skeleton following nonionic detergent lysis. Calmodulin, but not actin or other proposed interaction partners, co-immunoprecipitated with GAP-43 from the 100,000 x g supernatant following crosslinker addition to cells or cell lysates. Faint spots at 34 kDa and 60 kDa were also present. Additional GAP-43 was recovered from GAP-43 immunoprecipitation supernatants with anti-calmodulin but not with anti-actin. The results suggest that GAP-43 is not present in complexes with actin or other membrane skeletal or cytoskeletal proteins in these cells, but it is nevertheless possible that a small fraction of the total GAP-43 may interact with other proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding 2009)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Heat Treatment on the Physical Properties and Surface Roughness of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) Wood
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1772-1783; doi:10.3390/ijms9091772
Received: 31 March 2008 / Revised: 11 July 2008 / Accepted: 5 September 2008 / Published: 16 September 2008
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the physical properties and surface roughness of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Kastamonu Forest Enterprises,
[...] Read more.
Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the physical properties and surface roughness of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Kastamonu Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for different durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, wereb made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p = 0.05) between physical properties and surface roughness parameters (Ra,Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Turkish Hazel wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The New Unified Theory of ATP Synthesis/Hydrolysis and Muscle Contraction, Its Manifold Fundamental Consequences and Mechanistic Implications and Its Applications in Health and Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1784-1840; doi:10.3390/ijms9091784
Received: 17 July 2008 / Revised: 18 August 2008 / Accepted: 2 September 2008 / Published: 17 September 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complete details of the thermodynamics and molecular mechanisms of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and muscle contraction are offered from the standpoint of the torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis and the rotation-uncoiling-tilt (RUT) energy storage mechanism of muscle contraction. The manifold fundamental consequences
[...] Read more.
Complete details of the thermodynamics and molecular mechanisms of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and muscle contraction are offered from the standpoint of the torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis and the rotation-uncoiling-tilt (RUT) energy storage mechanism of muscle contraction. The manifold fundamental consequences and mechanistic implications of the unified theory for oxidative phosphorylation and muscle contraction are explained. The consistency of current mechanisms of ATP synthesis and muscle contraction with experiment is assessed, and the novel insights of the unified theory are shown to take us beyond the binding change mechanism, the chemiosmotic theory and the lever arm model. It is shown from first principles how previous theories of ATP synthesis and muscle contraction violate both the first and second laws of thermodynamics, necessitating their revision. It is concluded that the new paradigm, ten years after making its first appearance, is now perfectly poised to replace the older theories. Finally, applications of the unified theory in cell life and cell death are outlined and prospects for future research are explored. While it is impossible to cover each and every specific aspect of the above, an attempt has been made here to address all the pertinent details and what is presented should be sufficient to convince the reader of the novelty, originality, breakthrough nature and power of the unified theory, its manifold fundamental consequences and mechanistic implications, and its applications in health and disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lix@C60: Calculations of the Encapsulation Energetics and Thermodynamics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1841-1850; doi:10.3390/ijms9091841
Received: 30 July 2008 / Revised: 8 August 2008 / Accepted: 15 August 2008 / Published: 17 September 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Li@C60 and Li@C70 can be prepared and thus, their calculations at higher levels of theory are also of interest. In the report, the computations are carried out on Li@C60, Li2@C60 and Li3@C60 with the B3LYP
[...] Read more.
Li@C60 and Li@C70 can be prepared and thus, their calculations at higher levels of theory are also of interest. In the report, the computations are carried out on Li@C60, Li2@C60 and Li3@C60 with the B3LYP density-functional theory treatment in the standard 3-21G and 6-31G* basis sets. The computed energetics suggests that Lix@C60 species may be produced for a few small x values if the Li pressure is enhanced sufficiently. In order to check the suggestion, a deeper computational evaluation of the encapsulation thermodynamics is carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemical Bond and Bonding)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Tissue Factor Expression in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Nanoparticles Loading NF-κB Decoy Oligonucleotides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1851-1862; doi:10.3390/ijms9091851
Received: 7 July 2008 / Revised: 30 August 2008 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 18 September 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate a nuclear factor-kappa B decoy oligonucleotides strategy on the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) expression in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) by polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles delivery system and to evaluate this new vector for in vitro gene therapy.
[...] Read more.
To investigate a nuclear factor-kappa B decoy oligonucleotides strategy on the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) expression in cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) by polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles delivery system and to evaluate this new vector for in vitro gene therapy. Nanoparticles were formulated using poly D,L-polylactic acid with surface modifying by polysorbates 80. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl- 2H-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assays showed that PLA nanoparticles were not toxic to the cultured BMECs.The decoy oligonuceotides (ODNs) loaded within nanoparticles was 6 μg/mg, encapsulation efficacy was (60.5±1.5)%. It was observed by flow cytometry that the cellular uptake of nanoparticles depended on the time of incubation and the concentration of nanoparticles in the medium. And confocal microscopy demonstrated that nanoparticles localized mostly in the BMECs cytoplasm. The released decoy oligonuceotides (ODNs) uptaked by BMECs retained their biologic activity and led to reduced level of tissue factor expression as compared to control cultures. These findings offer a potential therapeutic strategy in the control of TF expression in BMECs in vitro and suggest that PLA nanoparticles may be appropriate as delivery vehicles for decoy strategy in the gene therapy of cerebral thrombosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle QSAR Study of p56lck Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Activity of Flavonoid Derivatives Using MLR and GA-PLS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1876-1892; doi:10.3390/ijms9091876
Received: 9 August 2008 / Revised: 2 September 2008 / Accepted: 13 September 2008 / Published: 22 September 2008
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantitative relationships between molecular structure and p56lck protein tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity of 50 flavonoid derivatives are discovered by MLR and GA-PLS methods. Different QSAR models revealed that substituent electronic descriptors (SED) parameters have significant impact on protein tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity
[...] Read more.
Quantitative relationships between molecular structure and p56lck protein tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity of 50 flavonoid derivatives are discovered by MLR and GA-PLS methods. Different QSAR models revealed that substituent electronic descriptors (SED) parameters have significant impact on protein tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity of the compounds. Between the two statistical methods employed, GA-PLS gave superior results. The resultant GA-PLS model had a high statistical quality (R2 = 0.74 and Q2 = 0.61) for predicting the activity of the inhibitors. The models proposed in the present work are more useful in describing QSAR of flavonoid derivatives as p56lck protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors than those provided previously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Broad-Spectrum Drugs Against Viral Agents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1561-1594; doi:10.3390/ijms9091561
Received: 18 April 2008 / Accepted: 29 August 2008 / Published: 1 September 2008
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Development of antivirals has focused primarily on vaccines and on treatments for specific viral agents. Although effective, these approaches may be limited in situations where the etiologic agent is unknown or when the target virus has undergone mutation, recombination or reassortment. Augmentation of
[...] Read more.
Development of antivirals has focused primarily on vaccines and on treatments for specific viral agents. Although effective, these approaches may be limited in situations where the etiologic agent is unknown or when the target virus has undergone mutation, recombination or reassortment. Augmentation of the innate immune response may be an effective alternative for disease amelioration. Nonspecific, broad-spectrum immune responses can be induced by double-stranded (ds)RNAs such as poly (ICLC), or oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated deocycytidyl-deoxyguanosinyl (CpG) motifs. These may offer protection against various bacterial and viral pathogens regardless of their genetic makeup, zoonotic origin or drug resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acid Derivatives in Emerging Technologies)
Open AccessReview Shear Stress Transmission Model for the Flagellar Rotary Motor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1595-1620; doi:10.3390/ijms9091595
Received: 23 May 2008 / Revised: 28 July 2008 / Accepted: 8 August 2008 / Published: 1 September 2008
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that
[...] Read more.
Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the charasteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation. Full article
Open AccessReview Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1621-1651; doi:10.3390/ijms9091621
Received: 5 March 2008 / Revised: 27 August 2008 / Accepted: 1 September 2008 / Published: 1 September 2008
Cited by 876 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane) or fermentation to ethanol. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of
[...] Read more.
Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane) or fermentation to ethanol. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses with no pretreatment is usually not so effective because of high stability of the materials to enzymatic or bacterial attacks. The present work is dedicated to reviewing the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes for conversion to ethanol or biogas. Effective parameters in pretreatment of lignocelluloses, such as crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose are described first. Then, several pretreatment methods are discussed and their effects on improvement in ethanol and/or biogas production are described. They include milling, irradiation, microwave, steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX), supercritical CO2 and its explosion, alkaline hydrolysis, liquid hot-water pretreatment, organosolv processes, wet oxidation, ozonolysis, dilute- and concentrated-acid hydrolyses, and biological pretreatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels R&D: Securing the Planet's Future Energy Needs)
Open AccessReview Integration of Motor Proteins – Towards an ATP Fueled Soft Actuator
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1685-1703; doi:10.3390/ijms9091685
Received: 18 June 2008 / Revised: 8 August 2008 / Accepted: 27 August 2008 / Published: 4 September 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a soft bio-machine constructed from biological motors (actin/myosin). We have found that chemically cross-linked polymer-actin complex gel filaments can move on myosin coated surfaces with a velocity as high as that of native Factin, by coupling to ATP hydrolysis. Additionally, it
[...] Read more.
We present a soft bio-machine constructed from biological motors (actin/myosin). We have found that chemically cross-linked polymer-actin complex gel filaments can move on myosin coated surfaces with a velocity as high as that of native Factin, by coupling to ATP hydrolysis. Additionally, it is shown that the velocity of polymer-actin complex gel depends on the species of polycations binding to the F-actins. Since the design of functional actuators of well-defined size and morphology is important, the structural behavior of polymer-actin complexes has been investigated. Our results show that the morphology and growth size of polymer-actin complex can be controlled by changes in the electrostatic interactions between F-actins and polycations. Our results indicate that bio actuators with desired shapes can be created by using a polymer-actin complex. Full article
Open AccessReview Myosin Assembly, Maintenance and Degradation in Muscle: Role of the Chaperone UNC-45 in Myosin Thick Filament Dynamics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1863-1875; doi:10.3390/ijms9091863
Received: 6 June 2008 / Revised: 8 September 2008 / Accepted: 13 September 2008 / Published: 19 September 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myofibrillogenesis in striated muscle cells requires a precise ordered pathway to assemble different proteins into a linear array of sarcomeres. The sarcomere relies on interdigitated thick and thin filaments to ensure muscle contraction, as well as properly folded and catalytically active myosin head.
[...] Read more.
Myofibrillogenesis in striated muscle cells requires a precise ordered pathway to assemble different proteins into a linear array of sarcomeres. The sarcomere relies on interdigitated thick and thin filaments to ensure muscle contraction, as well as properly folded and catalytically active myosin head. Achieving this organization requires a series of protein folding and assembly steps. The folding of the myosin head domain requires chaperone activity to attain its functional conformation. Folded or unfolded myosin can spontaneously assemble into short myosin filaments, but further assembly requires the short and incomplete myosin filaments to assemble into the developing thick filament. These longer filaments are then incorporated into the developing sarcomere of the muscle. Both myosin folding and assembly require factors to coordinate the formation of the thick filament in the sarcomere and these factors include chaperone molecules. Myosin folding and sarcomeric assembly requires association of classical chaperones as well as folding cofactors such as UNC-45. Recent research has suggested that UNC-45 is required beyond initial myosin head folding and may be directly or indirectly involved in different stages of myosin thick filament assembly, maintenance and degradation. Full article

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