Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1621-1651; doi:10.3390/ijms9091621
Review

Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review

1,* email and 1,2email
Received: 5 March 2008; in revised form: 27 August 2008 / Accepted: 1 September 2008 / Published: 1 September 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels R&D: Securing the Planet's Future Energy Needs)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane) or fermentation to ethanol. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses with no pretreatment is usually not so effective because of high stability of the materials to enzymatic or bacterial attacks. The present work is dedicated to reviewing the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes for conversion to ethanol or biogas. Effective parameters in pretreatment of lignocelluloses, such as crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose are described first. Then, several pretreatment methods are discussed and their effects on improvement in ethanol and/or biogas production are described. They include milling, irradiation, microwave, steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX), supercritical CO2 and its explosion, alkaline hydrolysis, liquid hot-water pretreatment, organosolv processes, wet oxidation, ozonolysis, dilute- and concentrated-acid hydrolyses, and biological pretreatments.
Keywords: Pretreatment; biogas; methane; ethanol; lignocellulose; waste; biodegradation
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [200 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 00:46 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Taherzadeh, M.J.; Karimi, K. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 1621-1651.

AMA Style

Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(9):1621-1651.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Karimi, Keikhosro. 2008. "Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 9: 1621-1651.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert