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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nerve Growth Factor and Related Substances: A Brief History and an Introduction to the International NGF Meeting Series
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061143
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein whose importance to research and its elucidation of fundamental mechanisms in cell and neurobiology far outstrips its basic physiological roles. It was the first of a broad class of cell regulators, largely acting through autocrine and
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Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein whose importance to research and its elucidation of fundamental mechanisms in cell and neurobiology far outstrips its basic physiological roles. It was the first of a broad class of cell regulators, largely acting through autocrine and paracrine interactions which will be described herein. It was of similar significance in establishing the identity and unique roles of neurotrophic factors in the development and maintenance of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Finally, it contributed to many advances in the elaboration of cell surface receptor mechanisms and intracellular cell signaling. As such, it can be considered to be a “molecular Rosetta Stone”. In this brief review, the highlights of these various studies are summarized, particularly as illustrated by their coverage in the 13 NGF international meetings that have been held since 1986. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotrophic Factors—Historical Perspective and New Directions)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle B-Myb Is Up-Regulated and Promotes Cell Growth and Motility in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18060860
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (16758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
B-Myb is a transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers. However, its potential implication in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we have for the first time investigated the expression profile of
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B-Myb is a transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an oncogenic role in several types of human cancers. However, its potential implication in lung cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we have for the first time investigated the expression profile of B-Myb and its functional impact in lung cancer. Expression analysis by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that B-Myb expression is aberrantly overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and positively correlated with pathologic grade and clinical stage of NSCLC. A gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of B-Myb significantly increases lung cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Conversely, a loss-of-function study showed that knockdown of B-Myb decreases cell growth, migration, and invasion. B-Myb overexpression also promoted tumor growth in vivo in a NSCLC xenograft nude mouse model. A molecular mechanistic study by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that B-Myb overexpression causes up-regulation of various downstream genes (e.g., COL11A1, COL6A1, FN1, MMP2, NID1, FLT4, INSR, and CCNA1) and activation of multiple critical pathways (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and phosphorylated-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways) involved in cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Collectively, our results indicate a tumor-promoting role for B-Myb in NSCLC and thus imply its potential as a target for the diagnosis and/or treatment of NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061073
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 29 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspases
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A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg) and methanol (50 mg/kg) extracts significantly (p < 0.001) reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%), total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively), average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively) as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Ameliorates Ox-LDL-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via PGC-1α/AMPK-Mediated Antioxidant Enzyme Induction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061097
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) accumulation is one of the critical determinants in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is identified to be an adipocytokine with cardioprotective properties. However, the potential roles of CTRP9 in endothelial function
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) accumulation is one of the critical determinants in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9) is identified to be an adipocytokine with cardioprotective properties. However, the potential roles of CTRP9 in endothelial function remain largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of CTRP9 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL were investigated. We observed that treatment with ox-LDL inhibited the proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and the generation of NO, while stimulated the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HUVECs. Incubation of HUVECs with CTRP9 rescued ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury. CTRP9 treatment reversed ox-LDL-evoked decreases in antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) dehydrogenase quinone 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Furthermore, CTRP9 induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC1-α) and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Of interest, AMPK inhibition or PGC1-α silencing abolished CTRP9-mediated antioxidant enzymes levels, eNOS expressions, and endothelial protective effects. Collectively, we provided the first evidence that CTRP9 attenuated ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury by antioxidant enzyme inductions dependent on PGC-1α/AMPK activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Emergence of CD26+ Cancer Stem Cells with Metastatic Properties in Colorectal Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061106
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer results from genetic aberrations which accumulate over a long period of time, with malignant and metastatic properties acquired at a relatively late stage. A subpopulation of CD26+ colorectal cancer stem cells are known to be implicated in metastasis. We quantified CD26+
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Colorectal cancer results from genetic aberrations which accumulate over a long period of time, with malignant and metastatic properties acquired at a relatively late stage. A subpopulation of CD26+ colorectal cancer stem cells are known to be implicated in metastasis. We quantified CD26+ cancer cells in 11 primary tumor samples by flow cytometry, and showed that tumors having confirmed or suspected metastases harbored a relatively high CD26+ level in these samples. We hypothesized that this subpopulation of cancer stem cells arises in the late stage of carcinogenesis from the bulk of tumor daughter cells which are CD26−. The manipulation of PIK3CA and TP53, two genes commonly deregulated in the late stage, had an effect on the maintenance of the CD26+ cell population. When CD26− tumor daughter cells were sorted and cultured, the emergence of tumor spheres containing CD26+ cells occurred. These findings shed light to the origin of colorectal cancer stem cells with metastatic properties, which has an implication on conventional treatments by surgery or adjuvant chemotherapy for tumor debulking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle NANOG Plays a Hierarchical Role in the Transcription Network Regulating the Pluripotency and Plasticity of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061107
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) has increasingly come into focus in stem cell research, since these compartments represent a rich source of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs exhibit a self-renewal potential and
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The stromal vascular cell fraction (SVF) of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) has increasingly come into focus in stem cell research, since these compartments represent a rich source of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs exhibit a self-renewal potential and differentiation capacity. Our aim was to study the different expression of the embryonic stem cell markers NANOG (homeobox protein NANOG), SOX2 (SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2) and OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) and to evaluate if there exists a hierarchal role in this network in ASCs derived from both SAT and VAT. ASCs were isolated from SAT and VAT biopsies of 72 consenting patients (23 men, 47 women; age 45 ± 10; BMI between 25 ± 5 and 30 ± 5 range) undergoing elective open-abdominal surgery. Sphere-forming capability was evaluated by plating cells in low adhesion plastic. Stem cell markers CD90, CD105, CD29, CD31, CD45 and CD146 were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the stem cell transcription factors NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 were detected by immunoblotting and real-time PCR. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 interplay was explored by gene silencing. ASCs from VAT and SAT confirmed their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype expressing the specific MSC markers CD90, CD105, NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4. NANOG silencing induced a significant OCT4 (70 ± 0.05%) and SOX2 (75 ± 0.03%) downregulation, whereas SOX2 silencing did not affect NANOG gene expression. Adipose tissue is an important source of MSC, and siRNA experiments endorse a hierarchical role of NANOG in the complex transcription network that regulates pluripotency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Marker-Assisted Molecular Profiling, Deletion Mutant Analysis, and RNA-Seq Reveal a Disease Resistance Cluster Associated with Uromyces appendiculatus Infection in Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061109
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance
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Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume, useful for its high protein and dietary fiber. The fungal pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger can cause major loss in susceptible varieties of the common bean. The Ur-3 locus provides race specific resistance to virulent strains or races of the bean rust pathogen along with Crg, (Complements resistance gene), which is required for Ur-3-mediated rust resistance. In this study, we inoculated two common bean genotypes (resistant “Sierra” and susceptible crg) with rust race 53 of U. appendiculatus, isolated leaf RNA at specific time points, and sequenced their transcriptomes. First, molecular markers were used to locate and identify a 250 kb deletion on chromosome 10 in mutant crg (which carries a deletion at the Crg locus). Next, we identified differential expression of several disease resistance genes between Mock Inoculated (MI) and Inoculated (I) samples of “Sierra” leaf RNA within the 250 kb delineated region. Both marker assisted molecular profiling and RNA-seq were used to identify possible transcriptomic locations of interest regarding the resistance in the common bean to race 53. Identification of differential expression among samples in disease resistance clusters in the bean genome may elucidate significant genes underlying rust resistance. Along with preserving favorable traits in the crop, the current research may also aid in global sustainability of food stocks necessary for many populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Defense Genes Against Biotic Stresses)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Splicing Events in Transcriptome Sequencing Data
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061110
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Genomic alignments of sequenced cellular messenger RNA contain gapped alignments which are interpreted as consequence of intron removal. The resulting gap-sites, genomic locations of alignment gaps, are landmarks representing potential splice-sites. As alignment algorithms report gap-sites with a considerable false discovery rate, validations
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Genomic alignments of sequenced cellular messenger RNA contain gapped alignments which are interpreted as consequence of intron removal. The resulting gap-sites, genomic locations of alignment gaps, are landmarks representing potential splice-sites. As alignment algorithms report gap-sites with a considerable false discovery rate, validations are required. We describe two quality scores, gap quality score (gqs) and weighted gap information score (wgis), developed for validation of putative splicing events: While gqs solely relies on alignment data wgis additionally considers information from the genomic sequence. FASTQ files obtained from 54 human dermal fibroblast samples were aligned against the human genome (GRCh38) using TopHat and STAR aligner. Statistical properties of gap-sites validated by gqs and wgis were evaluated by their sequence similarity to known exon-intron borders. Within the 54 samples, TopHat identifies 1,000,380 and STAR reports 6,487,577 gap-sites. Due to the lack of strand information, however, the percentage of identified GT-AG gap-sites is rather low. While gap-sites from TopHat contain ≈89% GT-AG, gap-sites from STAR only contain ≈42% GT-AG dinucleotide pairs in merged data from 54 fibroblast samples. Validation with gqs yields 156,251 gap-sites from TopHat alignments and 166,294 from STAR alignments. Validation with wgis yields 770,327 gap-sites from TopHat alignments and 1,065,596 from STAR alignments. Both alignment algorithms, TopHat and STAR, report gap-sites with considerable false discovery rate, which can drastically be reduced by validation with gqs and wgis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Regulatory Plasticity of Earthworm wMT-2 Gene Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061113
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Metallothioneins (MTs) are multifunctional proteins occurring throughout the animal kingdom. While the expression and transcriptional regulation of MTs is well-studied in vertebrates, the mechanism of MT activation is still unknown for most invertebrates. Therefore, we examined wMT-2 gene regulation and expression patterns in
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Metallothioneins (MTs) are multifunctional proteins occurring throughout the animal kingdom. While the expression and transcriptional regulation of MTs is well-studied in vertebrates, the mechanism of MT activation is still unknown for most invertebrates. Therefore, we examined wMT-2 gene regulation and expression patterns in Lumbricus rubellus and L. terrestris. Transcription levels, the occupation of DNA binding sites, the expression of putative transcriptional regulators, and promotor DNA methylation were determined. We found that wMT-2 expression does not follow a circadian pattern. However, Cd-induced wMT-2 induction was observed, and was, interestingly, suppressed by physical injury. Moreover, the promotor region that is responsible for the wMT-2 gene regulation was elucidated. ATF, a putative transcriptional regulator, showed increased phosphorylation upon Cd exposure, suggesting that it plays a major role in wMT-2 gene activation. The promotor methylation of wMT-2, on the other hand, is probably not involved in transcriptional regulation. Elucidating the regulatory mechanism of the earthworm MT gene activation might provide insights into the molecular coordination of the environmental stress response in invertebrates, and might also reveal a link to wound repair and, in a broader sense, to immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Mass Spectrometry Based Profiling and Imaging of Various Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng Roots at Different Ages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061114
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as
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(1) Background: Panax ginseng root is one of the most important herbal products, and the profiling of ginsenosides is critical for the quality control of ginseng roots at different ages in the herbal markets. Furthermore, interest in assessing the contents as well as the localization of biological compounds has been growing. The objective of this study is to carry out the mass spectrometry (MS)-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides to assess ginseng roots at different ages; (2) Methods: Optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight/MS (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was used to profile various ginsenosides from P. ginseng roots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF)/MS-based imaging was also optimized to visualize ginsenosides in ginseng roots; (3) Results: UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to profile 30 ginsenosides with high mass accuracy, with an in-house library constructed for the fast and exact identification of ginsenosides. Using this method, the levels of 14 ginsenosides were assessed in P. ginseng roots cultivated for 4, 5, and 6 years. The optimal MALDI-imaging MS (IMS) was also applied to visualize the 14 ginsenosides in ginseng roots. As a result, the MSI cross sections showed the localization of 4 ginsenoside ions ([M + K]+) in P. ginseng roots at different ages; (4) Conclusions: The contents and localization of various ginsenosides differ depending on the cultivation years of P. ginseng roots. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the utility of MS-based profiling and imaging of ginsenosides for the quality control of ginseng roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Plant Sciences 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Essential Role of Growth Hormone and IGF-1 in Therapeutic Effect of Ghrelin in the Course of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061118
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of
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Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day. Seven days after colitis induction, rats were anesthetized and the severity of the colitis was assessed. Treatment with ghrelin reduced the area of colonic mucosa damage in pituitary-intact rat. This effect was associated with increase in serum levels of GH and IGF-1. Moreover, administration of ghrelin improved blood flow in colonic mucosa and mucosal cell proliferation, as well as reduced mucosal concentration of proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and activity of myeloperoxidase. Hypophysectomy reduced serum levels of GH and IGF-1 and increased the area of colonic damage in rats with colitis. These effects were associated with additional reduction in mucosal blood follow and DNA synthesis when compared to pituitary-intact rats. Mucosal concentration of IL-1β and mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase were maximally increased. Moreover, in hypophysectomized rats, administration of ghrelin failed to affect serum levels of GH or IGF-1, as well as the healing rate of colitis, mucosal cell proliferation, and mucosal concentration of IL-1β, or activity of myeloperoxidase. We conclude that administration of ghrelin accelerates the healing of the acetic acid-induced colitis. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in experimental colitis is mainly mediated by the release of endogenous growth hormone and IGF-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth Hormone: Therapeutic Possibilities)
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Open AccessArticle Stability Profiles and Therapeutic Effect of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Chemically Coupled to O-Quaternary Chitosan Derivatives against Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061121
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has attracted considerable attention on treatment of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related disorders. We previously conjugated Cu/Zn SOD to O-quaternary chitosan derivatives (O-HTCC) to yield a polymer–enzyme conjugate O-HTCC-SOD that demonstrated superior therapeutic effect to native SOD.
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has attracted considerable attention on treatment of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related disorders. We previously conjugated Cu/Zn SOD to O-quaternary chitosan derivatives (O-HTCC) to yield a polymer–enzyme conjugate O-HTCC-SOD that demonstrated superior therapeutic effect to native SOD. The present study demonstrated that O-HTCC-SOD had wider pH activity range, better thermal stability, excellent long-term stability for storage, as well as unique reinstatement of activity exposure to proteolytic degradation that was helpful for longer half-life in vivo. O-HTCC-SOD exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages by down-regulating production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and intracellular ROS. O-HTCC-SOD significantly attenuated dextran sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice as observed by the colitis severity, neutrophil infiltration and histopathological damage, whereas native SOD failed to do so. In conclusion, conjugation of O-HTCC conferred SOD with better stability and enhanced therapeutic potential, offering a promising option in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chlorpromazine Increases the Expression of Polysialic Acid (PolySia) in Human Neuroblastoma Cells and Mouse Prefrontal Cortex
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061123
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is modified by polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) in embryonic brains. In adult brains, polySia modification of NCAM is only observed in restricted areas where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing although
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The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is modified by polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) in embryonic brains. In adult brains, polySia modification of NCAM is only observed in restricted areas where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing although the amount of NCAM remains unchanged. Impairments of the polySia-expression and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the polysialyltransferase (polyST) ST8SIA2 gene are reported to be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is well-known as an agent for treating schizophrenia, and our hypothesis is that CPZ may affect the polySia expression or the gene expression of polySTs or NCAM. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of CPZ on the expression of polySia-NCAM on human neuroblastoma cell line, IMR-32 cells, by immunochemical and chemical methods. Interestingly, the cell surface expression of polySia, especially those with lower chain lengths, was significantly increased on the CPZ-treated cells, while mRNAs for polySTs and NCAM, and the amounts of total polySia-NCAM remained unchanged. The addition of brefeldin A, an inhibitor of endocytosis, suppressed the CPZ-induced cell surface polySia expression. In addition, polySia-NCAM was also observed in the vesicle compartment inside the cell. All these data suggest that the level of cell surface expression of polySia in IMR-32 is highly regulated and that CPZ changes the rate of the recycling of polySia-NCAM, leading to the up-regulation of polySia-NCAM on the cell surface. We also analyzed the effect of CPZ on polySia-expression in various brain regions in adult mice and found that CPZ only influenced the total amounts of polySia-NCAM in prefrontal cortex. These results suggest a brain-region-specific effect of CPZ on the expression of total polySia in mouse brain. Collectively, anti-schizophrenia agent CPZ consistently up-regulates the expression polySia at both cellular and animal levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Melatonin Attenuates Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronically Hypoxic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061125
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract
Chronic hypoxia induces pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling, which are clinically relevant to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with a decreased level of nitric oxide (NO). Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the pathophysiological processes in COPD. We
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Chronic hypoxia induces pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling, which are clinically relevant to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with a decreased level of nitric oxide (NO). Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the pathophysiological processes in COPD. We examined the hypothesis that daily administration of melatonin (10 mg/kg) mitigates the pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in chronically hypoxic rats. The right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and the thickness of pulmonary arteriolar wall were measured from normoxic control, vehicle- and melatonin-treated hypoxic rats exposed to 10% O2 for 14 days. Levels of markers for oxidative stress (malondialdhyde) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and the expressions of total endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS at serine1177 (ser1177) were determined in the lung tissue. We found that the RVSP and the thickness of the arteriolar wall were significantly increased in the vehicle-treated hypoxic animals with elevated levels of malondialdhyde and mRNA expressions of the inflammatory mediators, when compared with the normoxic control. In addition, the phosphorylated eNOS (ser1177) level was significantly decreased, despite an increased eNOS expression in the vehicle-treated hypoxic group. Melatonin treatment significantly attenuated the levels of RVSP, thickness of the arteriolar wall, oxidative and inflammatory markers in the hypoxic animals with a marked increase in the eNOS phosphorylation in the lung. These results suggest that melatonin attenuates pulmonary hypertension by antagonizing the oxidative injury and restoration of NO production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Tdrd12 Is Essential for Germ Cell Development and Maintenance in Zebrafish
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061127
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
The regularity of Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis is crucial to germline development. Functioning as Piwi-interacting proteins, Tudor domain-related proteins (Tdrds) have been demonstrated to be involved in spermatogenesis and the piRNA pathway. In this study, zebrafish tdrd12 was identified, and the maternal and
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The regularity of Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis is crucial to germline development. Functioning as Piwi-interacting proteins, Tudor domain-related proteins (Tdrds) have been demonstrated to be involved in spermatogenesis and the piRNA pathway. In this study, zebrafish tdrd12 was identified, and the maternal and germ cell-specific expression patterns of zebrafish tdrd12 were observed. Utilizing TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nuclease) techniques, two independent tdrd12 mutant zebrafish lines were generated. Although no defects were found during the generation of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the tdrd12-null fish progenies obtained from the heterozygous tdrd12 mutant parents, all Tdrd12-deficient fish developed into infertile males. The reduced numbers and eventually loss of the germ cells by 35 days post fertilization (dpf) led to masculinization and infertility of the Tdrd12-deficient fish. Meiosis defects of the germ cells in the tdrd12 mutants during the gonad-transitioning period were observed, revealing the indispensable functions of Tdrd12 in gametogenesis. Our studies demonstrated that zebrafish Tdrd12 is essential for germ cell development and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Nitric Oxide Levels in Individuals with Chronic Periodontitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061128
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate whether the −1026(A>C)(rs2779249) and +2087(A>G)(2297518) polymorphisms in the NOS2 gene were associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) and with salivary levels of nitrite (NO2) and/or nitrate + nitrite (NOx). A group of 113 mixed-race patients were
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This study aimed to investigate whether the −1026(A>C)(rs2779249) and +2087(A>G)(2297518) polymorphisms in the NOS2 gene were associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) and with salivary levels of nitrite (NO2) and/or nitrate + nitrite (NOx). A group of 113 mixed-race patients were subjected to periodontal, genetic, and biochemical evaluations (65 CP/48 periodontally healthy subjects). DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (real-time). Salivary NOx concentrations were determined using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Association of CP with alleles and genotypes of the −1026(A>C) polymorphism was found (X2 test, p = 0.0075; 0.0308), but this was not maintained after multiple logistic regression, performed to estimate the effect of covariates and polymorphisms in CP. This analysis demonstrated, after correction for multiple comparisons, that only the female gender was significantly associated with CP. Polymorphisms analyzed as haplotypes were not associated with CP. NOx levels were significantly higher in the control group of heterozygous individuals for both polymorphisms. In conclusion, the female gender was significantly associated with CP, and higher levels of salivary NOx were found in control subjects and associated with the heterozygous state of the NOS2 polymorphisms, reinforcing the potential of NO metabolites as markers of periodontitis status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Melatonin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7)-Induced Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Activation and NF-κB Activator-Induced AR-V7 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells: Potential Implications for the Use of Melatonin in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061130
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we
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A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we showed that in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells transiently overexpressing androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was activated and could result in up-regulated interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression, indicating a positive interaction between AR-V7 expression and activated NF-κB/IL-6 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) pathogenesis. Importantly, both AR-V7-induced NF-κB activation and IL-6 gene transcription in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells could be inhibited by melatonin. Furthermore, stimulation of AR-V7 mRNA expression in LNCaP cells by betulinic acid, a pharmacological NF-κB activator, was reduced by melatonin treatment. Our data support the presence of bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 expression and NF-κB activation in CRPC pathogenesis. Of note, melatonin, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the previously-reported MT1 receptor-mediated antiproliferative pathway, can disrupt these bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 and NF-κB and thereby delay the development of castration resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Apparently, this therapeutic potential of melatonin in advanced prostate cancer/CRPC management is worth translation in the clinic via combined androgen depletion and melatonin repletion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Prostaglandin E2-Induced COX-2 Expressions via EP2 and EP4 Signaling Pathways in Human LoVo Colon Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061132
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Metastasis is the most dangerous risk faced by patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been observed in several types of human cancers and regulates the efficacy of many therapies. Here, we show that treatment with
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Metastasis is the most dangerous risk faced by patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been observed in several types of human cancers and regulates the efficacy of many therapies. Here, we show that treatment with various concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 0, 1, 5 or 10 μM) promotes the migration ability of the human LoVo colon cancer cell line. As demonstrated by mRNA and protein expression analyses, EP2 and EP4 are the major PGE2 receptors expressed on the LoVo cell membrane. The Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cell survival pathway was upregulated by EP2 and EP4 activation. Following the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, β-catenin translocated into the nucleus and triggered COX2 transcription via LEF-1 and TCF-4 and its subsequent translation. COX2 expression correlated with the elevation in the migration ability of LoVo cells. The experimental evidence shows a possible mechanism by which PGE2 induces cancer cell migration and further suggests PGE2 to be a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer metastasis. On inhibition of PGE2, in order to determine the downstream pathway, the levels of PI3K/Akt pathway were suppressed and the β-catenin expression was also modulated. Inhibition of EP2 and EP4 shows that PGE2 induces protein expression of COX-2 through EP2 and EP4 receptors in LoVo colon cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Function of Metallothionein-3 in Neuronal Cells: Do Metal Ions Alter Expression Levels of MT3?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061133
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A study of factors proposed to affect metallothionein-3 (MT3) function was carried out to elucidate the opaque role MT3 plays in human metalloneurochemistry. Gene expression of Mt2 and Mt3 was examined in tissues extracted from the dentate gyrus of mouse brains and in
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A study of factors proposed to affect metallothionein-3 (MT3) function was carried out to elucidate the opaque role MT3 plays in human metalloneurochemistry. Gene expression of Mt2 and Mt3 was examined in tissues extracted from the dentate gyrus of mouse brains and in human neuronal cell cultures. The whole-genome gene expression analysis identified significant variations in the mRNA levels of genes associated with zinc homeostasis, including Mt2 and Mt3. Mt3 was found to be the most differentially expressed gene in the identified groups, pointing to the existence of a factor, not yet identified, that differentially controls Mt3 expression. To examine the expression of the human metallothioneins in neurons, mRNA levels of MT3 and MT2 were compared in BE(2)C and SH-SY5Y cell cultures treated with lead, zinc, cobalt, and lithium. MT2 was highly upregulated by Zn2+ in both cell cultures, while MT3 was not affected, and no other metal had an effect on either MT2 or MT3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
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Open AccessArticle A Relative Deficiency of Lysosomal Acid Lypase Activity Characterizes Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061134
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. Initial reports have suggested a role for a relative acquired LAL deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)—however, it is still unclear whether this mechanism is specific for NAFLD. We aimed to
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Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. Initial reports have suggested a role for a relative acquired LAL deficiency in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)—however, it is still unclear whether this mechanism is specific for NAFLD. We aimed to determine LAL activity in a cohort of NAFLD subjects and in a control group of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, investigating the role of liver cirrhosis. A total of 81 patients with a diagnosis of NAFLD, and 78 matched controls with HCV-related liver disease were enrolled. For each patient, LAL activity was determined on peripheral dried blood spots (DBS) and correlated with clinical and laboratory data. A subgroup analysis among cirrhotic patients was also performed. LAL activity is significantly reduced in NAFLD, compared to that in HCV patients. This finding is particularly evident in the pre-cirrhotic stage of disease. LAL activity is also correlated with platelet and white blood cell count, suggesting an analytic interference of portal-hypertension-induced pancytopenia on DBS-determined LAL activity. NAFLD is characterized by a specific deficit in LAL activity, suggesting a pathogenetic role of LAL. We propose that future studies on this topic should rely on tissue specific analyses, as peripheral blood tests are also influenced by confounding factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Zoonotic Risk of Influenza A Viruses from Host Tropism Protein Signature Using Random Forest
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061135
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Influenza A viruses remain a significant health problem, especially when a novel subtype emerges from the avian population to cause severe outbreaks in humans. Zoonotic viruses arise from the animal population as a result of mutations and reassortments, giving rise to novel strains
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Influenza A viruses remain a significant health problem, especially when a novel subtype emerges from the avian population to cause severe outbreaks in humans. Zoonotic viruses arise from the animal population as a result of mutations and reassortments, giving rise to novel strains with the capability to evade the host species barrier and cause human infections. Despite progress in understanding interspecies transmission of influenza viruses, we are no closer to predicting zoonotic strains that can lead to an outbreak. We have previously discovered distinct host tropism protein signatures of avian, human and zoonotic influenza strains obtained from host tropism predictions on individual protein sequences. Here, we apply machine learning approaches on the signatures to build a computational model capable of predicting zoonotic strains. The zoonotic strain prediction model can classify avian, human or zoonotic strains with high accuracy, as well as providing an estimated zoonotic risk. This would therefore allow us to quickly determine if an influenza virus strain has the potential to be zoonotic using only protein sequences. The swift identification of potential zoonotic strains in the animal population using the zoonotic strain prediction model could provide us with an early indication of an imminent influenza outbreak. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Lectin Domains in Model Species: New Insights into Evolutionary Dynamics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061136
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lectins are present throughout the plant kingdom and are reported to be involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we provide a comparative analysis of the lectin families from model species in a phylogenetic framework. The analysis focuses on the different plant
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Lectins are present throughout the plant kingdom and are reported to be involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we provide a comparative analysis of the lectin families from model species in a phylogenetic framework. The analysis focuses on the different plant lectin domains identified in five representative core angiosperm genomes (Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Cucumis sativus, Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa ssp. indica). The genomes were screened for genes encoding lectin domains using a combination of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), hidden Markov models, and InterProScan analysis. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships were investigated by constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees. The results demonstrate that the majority of the lectin families are present in each of the species under study. Domain organization analysis showed that most identified proteins are multi-domain proteins, owing to the modular rearrangement of protein domains during evolution. Most of these multi-domain proteins are widespread, while others display a lineage-specific distribution. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analyses reveal that some lectin families evolved to be similar to the phylogeny of the plant species, while others share a closer evolutionary history based on the corresponding protein domain architecture. Our results yield insights into the evolutionary relationships and functional divergence of plant lectins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Lectins: From Model Species to Crop Plants)
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Open AccessCommunication Transfection of Antisense Oligonucleotides Mediated by Cationic Vesicles Based on Non-Ionic Surfactant and Polycations Bearing Quaternary Ammonium Moieties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061139
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Three different ionene polymers with varying quaternary ammonium moieties were used as a proof of concept for the formulation of antisense oligonucleotides, which are capable of inhibiting Renilla luciferase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Cationic vesicles, consisting of cationic polymer, antisense oligonucleotide (Luc
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Three different ionene polymers with varying quaternary ammonium moieties were used as a proof of concept for the formulation of antisense oligonucleotides, which are capable of inhibiting Renilla luciferase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Cationic vesicles, consisting of cationic polymer, antisense oligonucleotide (Luc) and non-ionic surfactant polysorbate 80, were investigated regarding their ζ potential, cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Deoxyribonucleic acid- (DNA) forming complexes in the presence of cationic vesicles were also investigated in terms of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The studied cationic vesicles showed very little, if any, toxicity against HeLa cells. Transfection abilities proved to vary strongly depending on the present quaternary ammonium moiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Changes of Microrna Levels in Plasma of Patients with Rectal Cancer during Chemoradiotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061140
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Since the response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is heterogeneous, valid biomarkers are needed to monitor tumor response. Circulating microRNAs are promising candidates, however analyses of circulating microRNAs in rectal cancer are still rare. 111 patients with rectal cancer
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Since the response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is heterogeneous, valid biomarkers are needed to monitor tumor response. Circulating microRNAs are promising candidates, however analyses of circulating microRNAs in rectal cancer are still rare. 111 patients with rectal cancer and 46 age-matched normal controls were enrolled. The expression levels of 30 microRNAs were analyzed in 17 pre-treatment patients’ plasma samples. Differentially regulated microRNAs were validated in 94 independent patients. For 52 of the 94 patients a paired comparison between pre-treatment and post-treatment samples was performed. miR-17, miR-18b, miR-20a, miR-31, and miR-193a_3p, were significantly downregulated in pre-treatment plasma samples of patients with rectal cancer (p < 0.05). miR-29c, miR-30c, and miR-195 showed a trend of differential regulation. After validation, miR-31 and miR-30c were significantly deregulated by a decrease of expression. In 52 patients expression analyses of the 8 microRNAs in matched pre-treatment and post-treatment samples showed a significant decrease for all microRNAs (p < 0.05) after treatment. Expression levels of miR-31 and miR-30c could serve as valid biomarkers if validated in a prospective study. Plasma microRNA expression levels do not necessarily represent miRNA expression levels in tumor tissue. Also, expression levels of microRNAs change during multimodal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Brazilian Green Propolis Encapsulated in a γ-Cyclodextrin Complex in Mice Fed a Western-Type Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061141
Received: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Ageing is often accompanied by chronic inflammation. A fat- and sugar-rich Western-type diet (WTD) may accelerate the ageing phenotype. Cell culture studies have indicated that artepillin C-containing Brazilian green propolis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known regarding its anti-inflammatory potential in mouse
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Ageing is often accompanied by chronic inflammation. A fat- and sugar-rich Western-type diet (WTD) may accelerate the ageing phenotype. Cell culture studies have indicated that artepillin C-containing Brazilian green propolis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known regarding its anti-inflammatory potential in mouse liver in vivo. In this study, female C57BL/6NRj wild-type mice were fed a WTD, a WTD supplemented with Brazilian green propolis supercritical extract (GPSE) encapsulated in γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) or a WTD plus γCD for 10 weeks. GPSE-γCD did not affect the food intake, body weight or body composition of the mice. However, mRNA levels of the tumour necrosis factor α were significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in these mice compared to those in the WTD-fed controls. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of other pro-inflammatory markers, including serum amyloid P, were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased following GPSE-γCD treatment. GPSE-γCD significantly induced hepatic ferritin gene expression (p < 0.01), which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties. Conversely, GPSE-γCD did not affect the biomarkers of endogenous antioxidant defence, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase-4, paraoxonase-1, glutamate cysteine ligase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Overall, the present data suggest that dietary GPSE-γCD exhibits anti-inflammatory, but not antioxidant activity in mouse liver in vivo. Thus, GPSE-γCD has the potential to serve as a natural hepatoprotective bioactive compound for dietary-mediated strategies against chronic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Suppression of Osteoclastogenesis by Melatonin: A Melatonin Receptor-Independent Action
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061142
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vertebrates, melatonin is primarily secreted from the pineal gland but it affects various biological processes including the sleep-wake cycle, vasomotor control, immune system and bone homeostasis. Melatonin has been known to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone maturation, but a direct role of
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In vertebrates, melatonin is primarily secreted from the pineal gland but it affects various biological processes including the sleep-wake cycle, vasomotor control, immune system and bone homeostasis. Melatonin has been known to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone maturation, but a direct role of melatonin on osteoclast differentiation is still elusive. The present study investigated the effect of melatonin on the differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts. The presence of melatonin significantly reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the melatonin receptor failed to overcome the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of melatonin. Although melatonin treatment did not affect the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), it markedly inhibited the activation of NF-κB and subsequent induction of nuclear factor of activated T cell cytoplasmic 1(NFATc1). Thus, our results suggest that melatonin could suppress osteoclast differentiation through downregulation of NF-κB pathway with concomitant decrease in the NFATc1 transcription factor induction. Furthermore, melatonin seems to have an anti-osteoclastogenic effect independent of plasma membrane melatonin receptors. In addition to previously reported properties of melatonin, our study proposes another aspect of melatonin and bone homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melatonin and Its Analogues: Experimental and Clinical Aspects)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Thrombin, Factor Xa and U46619 Inhibitory Effects of Non-Amidino and Amidino N2-Thiophenecarbonyl- and N2-Tosylanthranilamides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061144
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa (FXa) are key enzymes at the junction of the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and are the most attractive pharmacological targets for the development of novel anticoagulants. Twenty non-amidino N2-thiophencarbonyl- and N2-tosyl anthranilamides
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Thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa (FXa) are key enzymes at the junction of the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and are the most attractive pharmacological targets for the development of novel anticoagulants. Twenty non-amidino N2-thiophencarbonyl- and N2-tosyl anthranilamides 120 and six amidino N2-thiophencarbonyl- and N2-tosylanthranilamides 2126 were synthesized to evaluate their activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) using human plasma at a concentration of 30 µg/mL in vitro. As a result, compounds 5, 9, and 2123 were selected to study the further antithrombotic activity. The anticoagulant properties of 5, 9, and 2123 significantly exhibited a concentration-dependent prolongation of in vitro PT and aPTT, in vivo bleeding time, and ex vivo clotting time. These compounds concentration-dependently inhibited the activities of thrombin and FXa and inhibited the generation of thrombin and FXa in human endothelial cells. In addition, data showed that 5, 9, and 2123 significantly inhibited thrombin catalyzed fibrin polymerization and mouse platelet aggregation and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by U46619 in vitro and ex vivo. Among the derivatives evaluated, N-(3′-amidinophenyl)-2-((thiophen-2′′-yl)carbonylamino)benzamide (21) was the most active compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessCommunication Mutual Regulation of NOD2 and RIG-I in Zebrafish Provides Insights into the Coordination between Innate Antibacterial and Antiviral Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061147
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
PDF Full-text (12019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are two important cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), initiating innate antibacterial and antiviral signaling pathways. However, the relationship between these PRRs, especially in
[...] Read more.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are two important cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), initiating innate antibacterial and antiviral signaling pathways. However, the relationship between these PRRs, especially in teleost fish models, is rarely reported. In this article, we describe the mutual regulation of zebrafish NOD2 (DrNOD2) and RIG-I (DrRIG-I) in innate immune responses. Luciferase assays were conducted to determine the activation of NF-κB and interferon signaling. Morpholino-mediated knockdown and mRNA-mediated rescue were performed to further confirm the regulatory roles between DrNOD2 and DrRIG-I. Results showed that DrNOD2 and DrRIG-I shared conserved structural hallmarks with their mammalian counterparts, and activated DrRIG-I signaling can induce DrNOD2 production. Surprisingly, DrNOD2-initiated signaling can also induce DrRIG-I expression, indicating that a mutual regulatory mechanism may exist between them. Studies conducted using HEK293T cells and zebrafish embryos showed that DrRIG-I could negatively regulate DrNOD2-activated NF-κB signaling, and DrNOD2 could inhibit DrRIG-I-induced IFN signaling. Moreover, knocking down DrRIG-I expression by morpholino could enhance DrNOD2-initiated NF-κB activation, and vice versa, which could be rescued by their corresponding mRNAs. Results revealed a mutual feedback regulatory mechanism underlying NOD2 and RIG-I signaling pathways in teleosts. This mechanism reflects the coordination between cytosolic antibacterial and antiviral PRRs in the complex network of innate immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle N-Caffeoyltryptamine, a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Amide, Suppressed MCP-1 Expression in LPS-stimulated THP-1 Cells and Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061148
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a well-known chemokine critically involved in the pathophysiological progression of several inflammatory diseases including arthrosclerosis. N-caffeoyltryptamine is a phenolic amide with strong anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this paper, the potential effect of N-caffeoyltryptamine on MCP-1 expression
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Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a well-known chemokine critically involved in the pathophysiological progression of several inflammatory diseases including arthrosclerosis. N-caffeoyltryptamine is a phenolic amide with strong anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this paper, the potential effect of N-caffeoyltryptamine on MCP-1 expression was investigated as a potential p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. At the concentration of 20 μM, N-caffeoyltryptamine significantly inhibited p38 MAP kinase α, β, γ and δ by 15–50% (p < 0.05), particularly p38 MAP kinase α (IC50 = 16.7 μM) and β (IC50 = 18.3 μM). Also, the pretreatment of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells with N-caffeoyltryptamine (10, 20 and 40 μM) led to significant suppression of MCP-1 production by 10–45% (p < 0.05) in the cells. Additionally, N-caffeoyltryptamine was also able to significantly downregulate MCP-1 mRNA expression in the THP-1 cells (p < 0.05). On the basis of this strong inhibition in vitro, an animal study was conducted to confirm this inhibitory effect in vivo. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): a normal control diet (C), a high-fat diet (HF), or a high-fat diet supplemented with N-caffeoyltryptamine (2 mg per day) (HFS). After 16 weeks, blood samples were collected from the rats in each group, and MCP-1 levels were determined in plasma with other atherogenic markers (C-reactive protein and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin)). As expected, the average MCP-1 levels of the HF group were found to be higher than those of the C group (p < 0.05). However, the MCP-1 levels of the HFS group were significantly lower than those of the HF group (p < 0.05), suggesting that N-caffeoyltryptamine could decrease MCP-1 expression in vivo. Related to other atherogenic markers such as C-reactive protein and sE-selectin, there was no significant difference in their levels between the HF and HFS groups. These data suggest that N-caffeoyltryptamine may specifically suppress MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo, possibly by inhibiting p38 MAP kinase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Strawberry (cv. Romina) Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061149
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries
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Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction) on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Dry Eye Disease on Scar Formation in Rabbit Glaucoma Filtration Surgery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061150
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
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Abstract
The success rate of glaucoma filtration surgery is closely related to conjunctival inflammation, and the main mechanism of dry eye disease (DED) is inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DED on bleb scar formation after rabbit glaucoma
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The success rate of glaucoma filtration surgery is closely related to conjunctival inflammation, and the main mechanism of dry eye disease (DED) is inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DED on bleb scar formation after rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control and DED groups. A DED model was induced by twice-daily topical administration of 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC) drops for three weeks. Ocular examinations were performed to verify the DED model. Surgical effects were assessed, and histologic assessments were performed on the 28th postoperative day. Higher fluorescein staining scores, lower basal tear secretion levels and goblet cell counts, and increased interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels were observed in the DED group. The DED eyes displayed significantly higher intraocular pressure (IOP)% on the 14th postoperative day; a smaller bleb area on days 14, 21 and 28; and a shorter bleb survival time. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were significantly increased in the DED group. These results demonstrate that DED promotes filtering bleb scar formation and shortens bleb survival time; these effects may be mediated via IL-1β. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Marker of Prostatic Origin in Prostate Cancer Metastases: Comparison to PSA, Prostein, Androgen Receptor, ERG, NKX3.1, PSAP, and PSMA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061151
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this
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Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of HOXB13 in comparison to commonly used immunohistochemical markers for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Histologically confirmed prostate cancer lymph node metastases from 64 cases were used to test the diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers: prostate specific antigen (PSA), Prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), homeobox gene NKX3.1, prostein, androgen receptor (AR), HOXB13, and ETS-related gene (ERG). All markers were evaluated semi-quantitatively using Remmele's immune reactive score. Results: The detection rate of prostate origin of metastasis for single markers was 100% for NKX3.1, 98.1% for AR, 84.3% for PSMA, 80.8% for PSA, 66% for PSAP, 60.4% for HOXB13, 59.6% for prostein, and 50.0% for ERG. Conclusions: Our data suggest that HOXB13 on its own lacks sensitivity for the detection of prostatic origin. Therefore, this marker should be only used in conjunction with other markers, preferably the highly specific PSA. The combination of PSA with NKX3.1 shows a higher sensitivity and thus appears preferable in this setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Knockdown of XBP1 by RNAi in Mouse Granulosa Cells Promotes Apoptosis, Inhibits Cell Cycle, and Decreases Estradiol Synthesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061152
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
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Abstract
Granulosa cells are crucial for follicular growth, development, and follicular atresia. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a basic region-leucine zipper protein, is widely involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, cellular stress response, and other signaling pathways. In this study, RNA interference, flow cytometry,
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Granulosa cells are crucial for follicular growth, development, and follicular atresia. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a basic region-leucine zipper protein, is widely involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, cellular stress response, and other signaling pathways. In this study, RNA interference, flow cytometry, western blot, real-time PCR, Cell Counting Kit (CCK8), and ELISA were used to investigate the effect of XBP1 on steroidogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, and proliferation of mouse granulosa cells. ELISA analysis showed that XBP1 depletion significantly decreased the concentrations of estradiol (E2). Additionally, the expression of estrogen synthesis enzyme Cyp19a1 was sharply downregulated. Moreover, flow cytometry showed that knockdown of XBP1 increased the apoptosis rate and arrests the cell cycle in S-phase in granulosa cells (GCs). Further study confirmed these results. The expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteases-3 (caspase-3), cleaved caspase-3, and Cyclin E was upregulated, while that of Bcl-2, Cyclin A1, and Cyclin B1 was downregulated. Simultaneously, CCK8 analysis indicated that XBP1 disruption inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, XBP1 knockdown also alters the expression of Has2 and Ptgs2, two essential genes for folliculogenesis. Collectively, these data reveal a novel critical role of XBP1 in folliculogenesis by regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroid synthesis of mouse granulosa cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and the Hypothetical Cold Response Mode of Saussurea involucrata in Extreme Cold Environments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061155
Received: 23 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
Saussurea involucrata grows in high mountain areas covered by snow throughout the year. The temperature of this habitat can change drastically in one day. To gain a better understanding of the cold response signaling pathways and molecular metabolic reactions involved in cold stress
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Saussurea involucrata grows in high mountain areas covered by snow throughout the year. The temperature of this habitat can change drastically in one day. To gain a better understanding of the cold response signaling pathways and molecular metabolic reactions involved in cold stress tolerance, genome-wide transcriptional analyses were performed using RNA-Seq technologies. A total of 199,758 transcripts were assembled, producing 138,540 unigenes with 46.8 Gb clean data. Overall, 184,416 (92.32%) transcripts were successfully annotated. The 365 transcription factors identified (292 unigenes) belonged to 49 transcription factor families associated with cold stress responses. A total of 343 transcripts on the signal transduction (132 upregulated and 212 downregulated in at least any one of the conditions) were strongly affected by cold temperature, such as the CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (CIPKs), receptor-like protein kinases, and protein kinases. The circadian rhythm pathway was activated by cold adaptation, which was necessary to endure the severe temperature changes within a day. There were 346 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to transport, of which 138 were upregulated and 22 were downregulated in at least any one of the conditions. Under cold stress conditions, transcriptional regulation, molecular transport, and signal transduction were involved in the adaptation to low temperature in S. involucrata. These findings contribute to our understanding of the adaptation of plants to harsh environments and the survival traits of S. involucrata. In addition, the present study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of chilling and freezing tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh) Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061156
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR)+/−
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Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR)+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh) mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondria Crosstalks with other Organelles in Pathophysiology)
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Open AccessArticle Loss of BAX by miR-365 Promotes Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression by Suppressing Apoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061157
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Pro-apoptotic BCL2 associated X (BAX) is traditionally thought to be regulated by anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, like BCL2-like 1 (BCL-XL), at the protein level. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of BAX is under explored. In this study, we identified BAX as the novel downstream
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Pro-apoptotic BCL2 associated X (BAX) is traditionally thought to be regulated by anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, like BCL2-like 1 (BCL-XL), at the protein level. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of BAX is under explored. In this study, we identified BAX as the novel downstream target of miR-365, which is supported by gain- and loss-of-function studies of onco-miR-365. Loss of BAX by either RNA interference or highly-expressed miR-365 in cells of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) enhanced the tumor resistance against apoptosis, while repressing cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. In vivo experiment confirmed that BAX knockdown promotes the growth of CSCC xenografts. Collectively, our results find a miR-365-BAX axis for alleviating the pro-apoptotic effects of BAX, which promotes CSCC development and may facilitate the generation of novel therapeutic regimens to the clinical treatment of CSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessArticle The Instrumentation of a Microfluidic Analyzer Enabling the Characterization of the Specific Membrane Capacitance, Cytoplasm Conductivity, and Instantaneous Young’s Modulus of Single Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061158
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the instrumentation of a microfluidic analyzer enabling the characterization of single-cell biophysical properties, which includes seven key components: a microfluidic module, a pressure module, an imaging module, an impedance module, two LabVIEW platforms for instrument operation and raw data processing,
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This paper presents the instrumentation of a microfluidic analyzer enabling the characterization of single-cell biophysical properties, which includes seven key components: a microfluidic module, a pressure module, an imaging module, an impedance module, two LabVIEW platforms for instrument operation and raw data processing, respectively, and a Python code for data translation. Under the control of the LabVIEW platform for instrument operation, the pressure module flushes single cells into the microfluidic module with raw biophysical parameters sampled by the imaging and impedance modules and processed by the LabVIEW platform for raw data processing, which were further translated into intrinsic cellular biophysical parameters using the code developed in Python. Based on this system, specific membrane capacitance, cytoplasm conductivity, and instantaneous Young’s modulus of three cell types were quantified as 2.76 ± 0.57 μF/cm2, 1.00 ± 0.14 S/m, and 3.79 ± 1.11 kPa for A549 cells (ncell = 202); 1.88 ± 0.31 μF/cm2, 1.05 ± 0.16 S/m, and 3.74 ± 0.75 kPa for 95D cells (ncell = 257); 2.11 ± 0.38 μF/cm2, 0.87 ± 0.11 S/m, and 5.39 ± 0.89 kPa for H460 cells (ncell = 246). As a semi-automatic instrument with a throughput of roughly 1 cell per second, this prototype instrument can be potentially used for the characterization of cellular biophysical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Cell Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Significance of Phosphorylated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Its Signal Transducers in Human Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061159
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown that total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein is highly expressed in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). We aimed to investigate the significance of phosphorylated-EGFR (pEGFR) and its activated-downstream signal transducers in STS tissue samples. A tissue microarray comprising 87
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Previous studies have shown that total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein is highly expressed in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). We aimed to investigate the significance of phosphorylated-EGFR (pEGFR) and its activated-downstream signal transducers in STS tissue samples. A tissue microarray comprising 87 STS samples was assessed for total EGFR, pEGFR and its phosphorylated signal transducers and expression was correlated with clinicopathlogical parameters including patient outcome. Although the expression of total EGFR was significantly associated with adverse STS histologic grade (p = 0.004) and clinical stage (p = 0.012) similar to pEGFR, phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt) and phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK), it is not a prognostic factor for survival. By contrast, the expression of pEGFR is an independent factor for cancer specific survival, while pERK is an independent prognostic factor for both overall and cancer specific survival in STS (p < 0.05, Cox proportional hazard model and log-rank test) in addition to the recognised factors of tumour grade and clinical stage. pERK and pEGFR are new independent prognostic factors for overall and/or cancer specific survival in STS. The expression of EGFR/pEGFR, and their associated downstream signal transducers, was associated with STS progression, suggesting that EGFR downstream signalling pathways may jointly support STS cell survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alterations to Signalling Pathways in Cancer Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Sugar-Binding Profiles of Chitin-Binding Lectins from the Hevein Family: A Comprehensive Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061160
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chitin-binding lectins form the hevein family in plants, which are defined by the presence of single or multiple structurally conserved GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)-binding domains. Although they have been used as probes for chito-oligosaccharides, their detailed specificities remain to be investigated. In this
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Chitin-binding lectins form the hevein family in plants, which are defined by the presence of single or multiple structurally conserved GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)-binding domains. Although they have been used as probes for chito-oligosaccharides, their detailed specificities remain to be investigated. In this study, we analyzed six chitin-binding lectins, DSA, LEL, PWM, STL, UDA, and WGA, by quantitative frontal affinity chromatography. Some novel features were evident: WGA showed almost comparable affinity for pyridylaminated chitotriose and chitotetraose, while LEL and UDA showed much weaker affinity, and DSA, PWM, and STL had no substantial affinity for the former. WGA showed selective affinity for hybrid-type N-glycans harboring a bisecting GlcNAc residue. UDA showed extensive binding to high-mannose type N-glycans, with affinity increasing with the number of Man residues. DSA showed the highest affinity for highly branched N-glycans consisting of type II LacNAc (N-acetyllactosamine). Further, multivalent features of these lectins were investigated by using glycoconjugate and lectin microarrays. The lectins showed substantial binding to immobilized LacNAc as well as chito-oligosaccharides, although the extents to which they bound varied among them. WGA showed strong binding to heavily sialylated glycoproteins. The above observations will help interpret lectin-glycoprotein interactions in histochemical studies and glyco-biomarker investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Lectins: From Model Species to Crop Plants)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Differentially Expressed Micrornas Associate with Glucose Metabolism in Different Organs of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061161
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a widely favored herbivorous fish species and is a frequentlyused fish model for studying the metabolism physiology. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive illustration of the mechanisms of a high-starch diet (HSD) induced lipid
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Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a widely favored herbivorous fish species and is a frequentlyused fish model for studying the metabolism physiology. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive illustration of the mechanisms of a high-starch diet (HSD) induced lipid metabolic disorder by identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) controlled pathways in glucose and lipid metabolism in fish using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Small RNA libraries derived from intestines, livers, and brains of HSD and normal-starch diet (NSD) treated M. amblycephala were sequenced and 79, 124 and 77 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) in intestines, livers, and brains of HSD treated fish were identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses showed that these DEMs targeted hundreds of predicted genes were enriched into metabolic pathways and biosynthetic processes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and insulin signaling pathway. These analyses confirmed that miRNAs play crucial roles in glucose and lipid metabolism related to high wheat starch treatment. These results provide information on further investigation of a DEM-related mechanism dysregulated by a high carbohydrate diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle TRAV7-2*02 Expressing CD8+ T Cells Are Responsible for Palladium Allergy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061162
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
While metallic biomaterials have led to an improvement in the quality of life, metal allergies, especially to palladium (Pd), has caused a recent increase in allergic patients. Metal allergy is known to be a T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH); however, the pathogenic T
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While metallic biomaterials have led to an improvement in the quality of life, metal allergies, especially to palladium (Pd), has caused a recent increase in allergic patients. Metal allergy is known to be a T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH); however, the pathogenic T cell subsets and the specific T cell receptor (TCR) have not been identified. Therefore, we attempted to identify the pathogenic T cells responsible for Pd allergy. We found that activating CD8+ T cells significantly increased and that the TRAV (TCRα variable) 7-2*02 chain skewed in Pd allergic mice. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that in vitro-cultured Pd-stimulated antigen presenting cells (APCs) function as memory APCs with recipient mice developing Pd allergy and that the frequency of TRAV7-2*02 increases the same as conventional Pd allergic mice. In contrast, neither proliferation of CD8+ T cells nor increasing of TRAV7-2*02 was observed in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I)-deficient Pd-APCs transferred to mice. Taken together, we revealed that TRAV7-2*02-expressing CD8+ T cells are the pathogenic T cells for the development of Pd allergy. We also identified the CDR3 consensus motif of pathogenic TCRs as CAAXSGSWQLIF in TRAV7-2*02/TRAJ (TCRα junction)22*01 positive cells. These results suggest that the specific TCRs represent novel targets for the development of diagnostics and treatments for metal allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Metabolism in Animals II)
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Open AccessArticle The Complete Structure of the Core Oligosaccharide from Edwardsiella tarda EIB 202 Lipopolysaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061163
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
The chemical structure and genomics of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core oligosaccharide of pathogenic Edwardsiella tarda strain EIB 202 were studied for the first time. The complete gene assignment for all LPS core biosynthesis gene functions was acquired. The complete structure of core oligosaccharide
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The chemical structure and genomics of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core oligosaccharide of pathogenic Edwardsiella tarda strain EIB 202 were studied for the first time. The complete gene assignment for all LPS core biosynthesis gene functions was acquired. The complete structure of core oligosaccharide was investigated by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry MSn, and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The following structure of the undecasaccharide was established: The heterogeneous appearance of the core oligosaccharide structure was due to the partial lack of β-d-Galp and the replacement of α-d-GlcpNAcGly by α-d-GlcpNGly. The glycine location was identified by mass spectrometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs))
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Open AccessArticle Role of Free Radicals and Biotransformation in Trichloronitrobenzene-Induced Nephrotoxicity In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061165
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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This study determined the comparative nephrotoxic potential of four trichloronitrobenzenes (TCNBs) (2,3,4-; 2,4,5-; 2,4,6-; and 3,4,5-TCNB) and explored the effects of antioxidants and biotransformation inhibitors on TCNB-induced cytotoxicity in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats. IRCC were incubated with
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This study determined the comparative nephrotoxic potential of four trichloronitrobenzenes (TCNBs) (2,3,4-; 2,4,5-; 2,4,6-; and 3,4,5-TCNB) and explored the effects of antioxidants and biotransformation inhibitors on TCNB-induced cytotoxicity in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats. IRCC were incubated with a TCNB up to 1.0 mM for 15–120 min. Pretreatment with an antioxidant or cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), or peroxidase inhibitor was used in some experiments. Among the four TCNBs, the order of decreasing nephrotoxic potential was approximately 3,4,5- > 2,4,6- > 2,3,4- > 2,4,5-TCNB. The four TCNBs exhibited a similar profile of attenuation of cytotoxicity in response to antioxidant pretreatments. 2,3,4- and 3,4,5-TCNB cytotoxicity was attenuated by most of the biotransformation inhibitors tested, 2,4,5-TCNB cytotoxicity was only inhibited by isoniazid (CYP 2E1 inhibitor), and 2,4,6-TCNB-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by one CYP inhibitor, one FMO inhibitor, and one peroxidase inhibitor. All of the CYP specific inhibitors tested offered some attenuation of 3,4,5-TCNB cytotoxicity. These results indicate that 3,4,5-TCNB is the most potent nephrotoxicant, free radicals play a role in the TCNB cytotoxicity, and the role of biotransformation in TCNB nephrotoxicity in vitro is variable and dependent on the position of the chloro groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nephrotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle Utilization of Multi-Immunization and Multiple Selection Strategies for Isolation of Hapten-Specific Antibodies from Recombinant Antibody Phage Display Libraries
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061169
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for
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Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for construction of multiple antibody libraries. Selection methods were developed to utilize the full potential of the recombinant antibody library by applying four different elution conditions simultaneously. High-throughput immunoassays were used to analyse the binding properties of the individual antibody clones. Different carrier proteins were used in the immunization, selection, and screening phases to avoid enrichment of the antibodies for the carrier protein epitopes. Novel recombinant antibodies against mycophenolic acid and ochratoxin A, with affinities up to 39 nM and 34 nM, respectively, were isolated from a multi-immunized fragment antigen-binding (Fab) library. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Ontogeny of Sex-Related Differences in Foetal Developmental Features, Lipid Availability and Fatty Acid Composition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061171
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sex-related differences in lipid availability and fatty acid composition during swine foetal development were investigated. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the mother were strongly related to the adequacy or inadequacy of foetal development and concomitant activation of protective growth in some organs
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Sex-related differences in lipid availability and fatty acid composition during swine foetal development were investigated. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the mother were strongly related to the adequacy or inadequacy of foetal development and concomitant activation of protective growth in some organs (brain, heart, liver and spleen). Cholesterol and triglyceride availability was similar in male and female offspring, but female foetuses showed evidence of higher placental transfer of essential fatty acids and synthesis of non-essential fatty acids in muscle and liver. These sex-related differences affected primarily the neutral lipid fraction (triglycerides), which may lead to sex-related postnatal differences in energy partitioning. These results illustrate the strong influence of the maternal lipid profile on foetal development and homeorhesis, and they confirm and extend previous reports that female offspring show better adaptive responses to maternal malnutrition than male offspring. These findings may help guide dietary interventions to ensure adequate fatty acid availability for postnatal development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics of Risk Factors for Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Differential Sarcomere and Electrophysiological Maturation of Human iPSC-Derived Cardiac Myocytes in Monolayer vs. Aggregation-Based Differentiation Protocols
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061173
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
PDF Full-text (3378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a powerful human model to study cardiac disease in vitro, notably channelopathies and sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D) or, more recently, on
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Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a powerful human model to study cardiac disease in vitro, notably channelopathies and sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Different protocols for cardiac differentiation of iPSCs have been proposed either based on embroid body formation (3D) or, more recently, on monolayer culture (2D). We performed a direct comparison of the characteristics of the derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) on day 27 ± 2 of differentiation between 3D and 2D differentiation protocols with two different Wnt-inhibitors were compared: IWR1 (inhibitor of Wnt response) or IWP2 (inhibitor of Wnt production). We firstly found that the level of Troponin T (TNNT2) expression measured by FACS was significantly higher for both 2D protocols as compared to the 3D protocol. In the three methods, iPSC-CM show sarcomeric structures. However, iPSC-CM generated in 2D protocols constantly displayed larger sarcomere lengths as compared to the 3D protocol. In addition, mRNA and protein analyses reveal higher cTNi to ssTNi ratios in the 2D protocol using IWP2 as compared to both other protocols, indicating a higher sarcomeric maturation. Differentiation of cardiac myocytes with 2D monolayer-based protocols and the use of IWP2 allows the production of higher yield of cardiac myocytes that have more suitable characteristics to study sarcomeric cardiomyopathies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Research)
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Open AccessArticle The Combination of Arginine Deprivation and 5-Fluorouracil Improves Therapeutic Efficacy in Argininosuccinate Synthetase Negative Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061175
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), a key enzyme to synthesize arginine is down regulated in many tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Similar to previous reports, we have found the decrease in ASS expression in poorly differentiated HCC. These ASS(-) tumors are auxotrophic for arginine. Pegylated
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Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), a key enzyme to synthesize arginine is down regulated in many tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Similar to previous reports, we have found the decrease in ASS expression in poorly differentiated HCC. These ASS(-) tumors are auxotrophic for arginine. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), which degrades arginine, has shown activity in these tumors, but the antitumor effect is not robust and hence combination treatment is needed. Herein, we have elucidated the effectiveness of ADI-PEG20 combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in ASS(-)HCC by targeting urea cycle and pyrimidine metabolism using four HCC cell lines as model. SNU398 and SNU387 express very low levels of ASS or ASS(-) while Huh-1, and HepG2 express high ASS similar to normal cells. Our results showed that the augmented cytotoxic effect of combination treatment only occurs in SNU398 and SNU387, and not in HepG2 and Huh-1 (ASS(+)) cells, and is partly due to reduced anti-apoptotic proteins X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein (Mcl-1) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Importantly, lack of ASS also influences essential enzymes in pyrimidine synthesis (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase2, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydrooratase (CAD) and thymidylate synthase (TS)) and malate dehydrogenase-1 (MDH-1) in TCA cycle. ADI-PEG20 treatment decreased these enzymes and made them more vulnerable to 5-FU. Transfection of ASS restored these enzymes and abolished the sensitivity to ADI-PEG20 and combination treatment. Overall, our data suggest that ASS influences multiple enzymes involved in 5-FU sensitivity. Combining ADI-PEG20 and 5-FU may be effective to treat ASS(-)hepatoma and warrants further clinical investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic In Vivo Profiling of DNA Damage and Repair after Radiotherapy Using Canine Patients as a Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061176
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
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Abstract
Time resolved data of DNA damage and repair after radiotherapy elucidates the relation between damage, repair, and cell survival. While well characterized in vitro, little is known about the time-course of DNA damage response in tumors sampled from individual patients. Kinetics of DNA
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Time resolved data of DNA damage and repair after radiotherapy elucidates the relation between damage, repair, and cell survival. While well characterized in vitro, little is known about the time-course of DNA damage response in tumors sampled from individual patients. Kinetics of DNA damage after radiotherapy was assessed in eight dogs using repeated in vivo samples of tumor and co-irradiated normal tissue analyzed with comet assay and phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) immunohistochemistry. In vivo results were then compared (in silico) with a dynamic mathematical model for DNA damage formation and repair. Maximum %DNA in tail was observed at 15–60 min after irradiation, with a rapid decrease. Time-courses of γH2AX-foci paralleled these findings with a small time delay and were not influenced by covariates. The evolutionary parameter search based on %DNA in tail revealed a good fit of the DNA repair model to in vivo data for pooled sarcoma time-courses, but fits for individual sarcoma time-courses suffer from the heterogeneous nature of the in vivo data. It was possible to follow dynamics of comet tail intensity and γH2AX-foci during a course of radiation using a minimally invasive approach. DNA repair can be quantitatively investigated as time-courses of individual patients by integrating this resulting data into a dynamic mathematical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Injury and Repair Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Symmetry Mixed Fluorinated Subphthalocyanines as Fluorescence Imaging Probes in MDA-MB-231 Breast Tumor Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061177
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Boron subphthalocyanines (SPcs) are aromatic macrocycles that possess a combination of physical and optical properties that make them excellent candidates for application as fluorescent imaging probes. These molecules have intense electronic absorption and emission, and structural versatility that allows for specific tuning of
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Boron subphthalocyanines (SPcs) are aromatic macrocycles that possess a combination of physical and optical properties that make them excellent candidates for application as fluorescent imaging probes. These molecules have intense electronic absorption and emission, and structural versatility that allows for specific tuning of physical properties. Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of low-symmetry fluorinated SPcs and compare them to analogous compounds with varying numbers of peripheral fluorine atoms and varied aromaticity. Across the series, with increasing addition of fluorine atoms to the periphery of the ring, a downfield chemical shift in 19F NMR and a bathochromic shift of electronic absorption were observed. Expanding the size of the aromatic ring by replacing peripheral benzo- groups with naphtho- groups prompted a far more drastic bathochromic shift to absorption and emission. Fluorescence quantum yields (Φf) proved to be sufficiently high to observe intracellular fluorescence from MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells in vitro by epifluorescence microscopy; fluorination proved vital for this purpose to improve solubility. This report lays the groundwork for the future development of these promising SPcs for their ultimate application as near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging probes in biological systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061180
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific
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Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulses)
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Open AccessArticle Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Vascular Changes in Diabetic Macular Edema after Dexamethasone Implant Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061181
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate retinal and choriocapillaris vessel changes in diabetic macular edema (DME) after the intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Moreover, a comparison between morphological and functional parameters of DME and healthy patients
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The aim of this study was to investigate retinal and choriocapillaris vessel changes in diabetic macular edema (DME) after the intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IDI) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Moreover, a comparison between morphological and functional parameters of DME and healthy patients was performed. Twenty-five eyes of 25 type 2 diabetic retinopathy patients complicated by macular edema (DME group) and 25 healthy subjects (control group) were enrolled. Superficial capillary plexus density (SCPD) and deep capillary plexus density (DCPD) in the foveal and parafoveal areas, choricapillary density (CCD) and optic disc vessel density (ODVD) were detected using OCTA at baseline and after 7, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days post injection. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), retinal sensitivity, and central retinal thickness (CMT) were also evaluated in both groups of patients. A statistically significant difference between the two groups (DME and controls) was found in terms of functional (MP, p < 0.001 and BCVA, p < 0.001) and morphological (CMT, p < 0.001; SCPD in the parafoveal area, p < 0.001; DCPD in the foveal area, p < 0.05 and parafoveal area, p < 0.001; CCD, p < 0.001) parameters. After the treatment, SCPD and DCPD in the foveal and parafoveal areas did not modify significantly during the follow up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinal Diseases: Bridging Basic and Clinical Research)
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Open AccessArticle Gene Expression (mRNA) Markers for Differentiating between Malignant and Benign Follicular Thyroid Tumours
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061184
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 28 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression
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Distinguishing between follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) constitutes a long-standing diagnostic problem resulting in equivocal histopathological diagnoses. There is therefore a need for additional molecular markers. To identify molecular differences between FTC and FTA, we analyzed the gene expression microarray data of 52 follicular neoplasms. We also performed a meta-analysis involving 14 studies employing high throughput methods (365 follicular neoplasms analyzed). Based on these two analyses, we selected 18 genes differentially expressed between FTA and FTC. We validated them by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in an independent set of 71 follicular neoplasms from formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue material. We confirmed differential expression for 7 genes (CPQ, PLVAP, TFF3, ACVRL1, ZFYVE21, FAM189A2, and CLEC3B). Finally, we created a classifier that distinguished between FTC and FTA with an accuracy of 78%, sensitivity of 76%, and specificity of 80%, based on the expression of 4 genes (CPQ, PLVAP, TFF3, ACVRL1). In our study, we have demonstrated that meta-analysis is a valuable method for selecting possible molecular markers. Based on our results, we conclude that there might exist a plausible limit of gene classifier accuracy of approximately 80%, when follicular tumors are discriminated based on formalin-fixed postoperative material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061186
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an
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Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ripening Control and Induction of the Defence and Antioxidant Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061189
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at −80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations (n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment (r = 0.455 to rs = 0.596; p < 0.004). In summary, when considering the acceptable change limit, BDNF was stable in serum and in EDTA-plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Open AccessArticle Cross-Kingdom Regulation of Putative miRNAs Derived from Happy Tree in Cancer Pathway: A Systems Biology Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061191
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known key regulators of gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level. Plant-derived miRNAs may pass through the gastrointestinal tract, entering into the body fluid and regulate the expression of endogenous mRNAs. Camptotheca acuminata, a highly important medicinal plant known
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known key regulators of gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level. Plant-derived miRNAs may pass through the gastrointestinal tract, entering into the body fluid and regulate the expression of endogenous mRNAs. Camptotheca acuminata, a highly important medicinal plant known for its anti-cancer potential was selected to investigate cross-kingdom regulatory mechanism and involvement of miRNAs derived from this plant in cancer-associated pathways through in silico systems biology approach. In this study, total 33 highly stable putative novel miRNAs were predicted from the publically available 53,294 ESTs of C. acuminata, out of which 14 miRNAs were found to be regulating 152 target genes in human. Functional enrichment, gene-disease associations and network analysis of these target genes were carried out and the results revealed their association with prominent types of cancers like breast cancer, leukemia and lung cancer. Pathways like focal adhesion, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes and mTOR signaling pathways were found significantly associated with the target genes. The regulatory network analysis showed the association of some important hub proteins like GSK3B, NUMB, PEG3, ITGA2 and DLG2 with cancer-associated pathways. Based on the analysis results, it can be suggested that the ingestion of the C. acuminata miRNAs may have a functional impact on tumorigenesis in a cross-kingdom way and may affect the physiological condition at genetic level. Thus, the predicted miRNAs seem to hold potentially significant role in cancer pathway regulation and therefore, may be further validated using in vivo experiments for a better insight into their mechanism of epigenetic action of miRNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Conformational Flexibility Differentiates Naturally Occurring Bet v 1 Isoforms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061192
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility
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The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. Using NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the initial proteolytic cleavage sites in two naturally occurring Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a) and Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), are conformationally flexible. Inaccessible cleavage sites in helices and strands are highly flexible on the microsecond-millisecond time scale, whereas those located in loops display faster nanosecond-microsecond flexibility. The data consistently show that Bet v 1.0102 is more flexible and conformationally heterogeneous than Bet v 1.0101. Moreover, NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements reveal that the backbone amides in Bet v 1.0102 are significantly more solvent exposed, in agreement with this isoform’s higher susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. The differential conformational flexibility of Bet v 1 isoforms, along with the transient exposure of inaccessible sites to the protein surface, may be linked to proteolytic susceptibility, representing a potential structure-based rationale for the observed differences in Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proteolysis in Allergic Sensitization and Th2 Response)
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Open AccessArticle Photoreceptor PhyB Involved in Arabidopsis Temperature Perception and Heat-Tolerance Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061194
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The influence of temperature on plants is essential. However, our knowledge on the intricate regulation process underlying heat stress (HS) response in plants is limited. Recently, information about thermal sensors in vivo has begun to emerge. In this study, another primary environmental stimulus,
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The influence of temperature on plants is essential. However, our knowledge on the intricate regulation process underlying heat stress (HS) response in plants is limited. Recently, information about thermal sensors in vivo has begun to emerge. In this study, another primary environmental stimulus, light, was verified once again to work with temperature synergistically on plants, through the modulation of numerous biological processes. With the application of transcriptomic analysis, a substantial number of heat-responsive genes were detected involved in both light- and phytohormone-mediated pathways in Arabidopsis. During this process, phytoreceptor phyB acts as a molecular switch to turn on or turn off several other genes HS response, under different light conditions. Furthermore, a morphological study showed the afunction of phyB enhanced plants thermal tolerance, confirming the important role of this phytochrome in temperature perception and response in plants. This study adds data to the picture of light and temperature signaling cross-talk in plants, which is important for the exploration of complicated HS responses or light-mediated mechanisms. Furthermore, based on its influence on Arabidopsis thermal response in both morphological and physiological levels, phyB is a photoreceptor, as revealed before, as well as an essential thermal sensor in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry) Reduces Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage via Regulation of HSP-70, NF-κB, and MCP-1 Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061195
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 5 June 2017
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Abstract
Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. belongs to the Rosaceae family. The purpose of this study is to explore the gastroprotective effect of the Aronia melanocarpa hydro-alcoholic extract (AMHAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in a rat model. Different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of
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Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. belongs to the Rosaceae family. The purpose of this study is to explore the gastroprotective effect of the Aronia melanocarpa hydro-alcoholic extract (AMHAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in a rat model. Different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of AMHAE, or 30 mg/kg of omeprazole, significantly inhibited the gastric injury formation. The ethanol-induced ulcer group showed significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and interleukin (IL)-4. However, AMHAE (200 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly reversed the altered pathophysiological levels of these biomolecules to near normal stages. The gastroprotective activity of AMHAE was abolished by pretreatment with l-NAME, naloxone, capsazepine, and indomethacin, demonstrating the participation of nitric oxide (NO), opioids, TRPV (vanilloid receptor-related transient receptor potential), and prostaglandins in AMHAE-assisted gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric injuries. This gastroprotective effect of AMHAE might be due to the downregulation of TNF-α-based NF-κB, MCP-1 signaling and strong antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract from the Seeds of Orychophragmus violaceus against Liver Injury in Mice and HepG2 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061197
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
PDF Full-text (4929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Orychophragmus violaceus (O. violaceus) is a kind of edible wild herb in north China and its seeds have medical potential, however, the effect of O. violaceus seeds on liver injury and the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Thus, the purpose
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Orychophragmus violaceus (O. violaceus) is a kind of edible wild herb in north China and its seeds have medical potential, however, the effect of O. violaceus seeds on liver injury and the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of O. violaceus seeds on liver injury and further explore the molecular mechanism of the beneficial effects using aqueous extract from the seeds of O. violaceus (AEOV). Mice were orally administrated with saline, AEOV, and biphenyldicarboxylate for 4 days, and were then injected subcutaneously with 0.1% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) dissolved in corn oil. Sixteen hours later, mice were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Then, the serum was separated and used for biochemical assay. Livers were excised and were routinely processed for histological examinations. Enzyme activities and protein levels in liver homogenates were detected using commercial kits or by western blot analysis. Additionally, the hepatoprotective effect of AEOV in vitro was evaluated using epigoitrin, the major alkaloid compound isolated from AEOV. We found that AEOV attenuated liver injury induced by CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aminotransferase (AST) in serum, improvement of liver histopathological changes, and substantial attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation via regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathways. These effects of AEOV were comparable to that of biphenyldicarboxylate which was commonly used as a hepatoprotective reference. Moreover, pretreatment of HepG2 cells with epigoitrin improved cell viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, attenuated the NFκB pathway, and elevated the Nrf2 pathway after exposure to H2O2. These results suggest that AEOV could effectively prevent CCl4-induced liver injury in mice via regulating the Nrf2 and NFκB pathways, and reveal the cytoprotective effects of epigoitrin against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Full article
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