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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1307; doi:10.3390/ijms18061307

Candida albicans Impairments Induced by Peppermint and Clove Oils at Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz 90-924, Poland
2
Institute of General Food Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz 90-924, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Mechanisms of Plant Bioactive Essential Fats and Oils)
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Abstract

Members of Candida species cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied, due to their antifungal activity, low toxicity if used appropriately, and biodegrability. The aim of the study was to characterize the early alterations in Candida albicans metabolic properties in relation to proteins and chromosomal DNA profiles, after treatment with peppermint and clove oils at sub-inhibitory concentrations. The yeasts were affected by the oils even at a concentration of 0.0075% v/v, which resulted in changes in colony morphotypes and metabolic activities. Peppermint and clove oils at concentrations ranging from 0.015× MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) to 0.5× MIC values substantially affected the enzymatic abilities of C. albicans, and these changes were primarily associated with the loss or decrease of activity of all 9 enzymes detected in the untreated yeast. Moreover, 29% isolates showed additional activity of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and 14% isolates—α-fucosidase in comparison to the yeast grown without essential oils addition. In response to essential oils at 0.25–0.5× MIC, extensive changes in C. albicans whole-cell protein profiles were noted. However, the yeast biochemical profiles were intact with the sole exception of the isolate treated with clove oil at 0.5× MIC. The alterations were not attributed to gross chromosomal rearrangements in C. albicans karyotype. The predominantly observed decrease in protein fractions and the yeast enzymatic activity after treatment with the oils should be considered as a phenotypic response of C. albicans to the essential oils at their sub-inhibitory concentrations and may lead to the reduction of this yeast pathogenicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; essential oils; anticandidal activity; enzymatic activity; karyotype; proteins profile Candida albicans; essential oils; anticandidal activity; enzymatic activity; karyotype; proteins profile
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rajkowska, K.; Otlewska, A.; Kunicka-Styczyńska, A.; Krajewska, A. Candida albicans Impairments Induced by Peppermint and Clove Oils at Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1307.

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