Next Article in Journal
PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade Therapy for Tumors with Downregulated MHC Class I Expression
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular and Clinicopathological Differences by Age at the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
New Insights in Thyroid Cancer and p53 Family Proteins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Predicting Outcome and Therapy Response in mCRC Patients Using an Indirect Method for CTCs Detection by a Multigene Expression Panel: A Multicentric Prospective Validation Study
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1324; doi:10.3390/ijms18061324

Immune Checkpoints as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Treatment

1
Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 47014 Meldola, Italy
2
Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 47014 Meldola, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [875 KB, uploaded 21 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Anti-tumor immunity is a new line of research for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. In this field, negative regulators of the immune system called immune checkpoints play a key role in limiting antitumor immunologic responses. For this reason, immune checkpoint-inhibiting agents, such as those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 receptor (PD1) and its ligand PD-L1, have been developed as antitumor drugs, producing interesting results in preclinical and clinical studies. We present an updated review of the biological background and clinical development of immune checkpoint inhibitors in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early trial results on PD1 and PD-L1 blockade appear promising, especially in CRC patients with microsatellite instability (MSI). Clinical trials are ongoing to confirm these preliminary results, evaluate combination strategies and identify biomarkers to predict which patients are most likely to benefit from, or show resistance to, the effects of checkpoint inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; microsatellite instability (MSI); programmed death-1 receptor (PD1); programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) colorectal cancer; immune checkpoint inhibitors; microsatellite instability (MSI); programmed death-1 receptor (PD1); programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1)
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Passardi, A.; Canale, M.; Valgiusti, M.; Ulivi, P. Immune Checkpoints as a Target for Colorectal Cancer Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1324.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top