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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1305; doi:10.3390/ijms18061305

The Role of HCG in Implantation: A Mini-Review of Molecular and Clinical Evidence

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Greece
3
Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece
4
Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens 11528, Greece
5
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Campus Innenstadt & Campus Grosshadern, Munich 80337, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue hCG—An Endocrine, Regulator of Gestation and Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [178 KB, uploaded 20 June 2017]

Abstract

Embryo implantation is a complex process involving continuous molecular cross-talk between the embryo and the decidua. One of the key molecules during this process is human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG effectively modulates several metabolic pathways within the decidua contributing to endometrial receptivity. Herein, a brief overview of the molecular mechanisms regulated by HCG is presented. Furthermore, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the clinical impact on reproductive outcomes after endometrial priming with HCG prior to embryo transfer. Although promising, further evidence is needed to clarify the protocol that would lead to beneficial outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); implantation; infertility human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); implantation; infertility
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Makrigiannakis, A.; Vrekoussis, T.; Zoumakis, E.; Kalantaridou, S.N.; Jeschke, U. The Role of HCG in Implantation: A Mini-Review of Molecular and Clinical Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1305.

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