E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Toshio Morikawa

Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Institute, Kindai University; 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: isolation and structure determination of bioactive natural products; synthetic studies on bioactive natural products; structure-activity relationship studies on bioactive natural products; studies of bioactive natural products on the application to pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and food additives; mechanisms of action of bioactive natural products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural secondary metabolite products, which are isolated from plants, animals, microorganisms, etc., are classified as polyketides, isoprenoids, aromatics (phenylpropanoids), alkaloids, etc. Their chemical diversity and variety of biological activities have attracted the attention of chemists, biochemists, biologists, etc. The Special Issue on "Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products" is intended to offer biological active natural products as candidates and/or leads for pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, functional foods, cosmetics, food additives, etc. The research fields of this Special Issue include natural products chemistry, phytochemistry, pharmacognosy, food chemistry, bioorganic synthetic chemistry, chemical biology, molecular biology, molecular pharmacology, and other related research fields of bioactive natural secondary metabolite products. Original research and review articles on all topics in these research fields are invited. I am looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding experts in these research fields.

Dr. Toshio Morikawa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • natural product chemistry
  • phytochemistry
  • pharmacognosy
  • food chemistry
  • bioorganic chemistry
  • chemical biology
  • molecular biology
  • molecular pharmacology
  • isolation and structure determination
  • total synthesis
  • structure-activity relationship
  • mechanism of action

Published Papers (26 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-26
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Immuno-Modulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dihydrogracilin A, a Terpene Derived from the Marine Sponge Dendrilla membranosa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081643
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We assessed the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of 9,11-dihydrogracilin A (DHG), a molecule derived from the Antarctic marine sponge Dendrilla membranosa. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to establish DHG properties. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human keratinocytes
[...] Read more.
We assessed the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of 9,11-dihydrogracilin A (DHG), a molecule derived from the Antarctic marine sponge Dendrilla membranosa. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to establish DHG properties. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human keratinocytes cell line (HaCaT cells) were used as in vitro system, whereas a model of murine cutaneous irritation was adopted for in vivo studies. We observed that DHG reduces dose dependently the proliferative response and viability of mitogen stimulated PBMC. In addition, DHG induces apoptosis as revealed by AnnexinV staining and downregulates the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) at late time points. These effects were accompanied by down-regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) production, slight decrease of IL-10 and no inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion. To assess potential properties of DHG in epidermal inflammation we used HaCaT cells; this compound reduces cell growth, viability and migration. Finally, we adopted for the in vivo study the croton oil-induced ear dermatitis murine model of inflammation. Of note, topical use of DHG significantly decreased mouse ear edema. These results suggest that DHG exerts anti-inflammatory effects and its anti-edema activity in vivo strongly supports its potential therapeutic application in inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Alternaria alternata Mycotoxin Alternariol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071577
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage
[...] Read more.
The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms. AOH/AME-related immune suppression and morphological changes were linked to the ability of these mycotoxins to cause cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This model was also used to investigate the AOH/AME mechanism of immune suppression in relation to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR was not found to be important for the immunosuppressive properties of AOH/AME, but appeared important for the low levels of cell death observed in BEAS-2B cells. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Role of Hydrangea macrophylla against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Mitochondrial-Dependent Oxidative Stress via the Inhibition of MAPK/Caspase-3 Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071482
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (7638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM) is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2
[...] Read more.
Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM) is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2-induced toxicity in human liver cancer (HepG2) cells and liver in mice. The hepatoprotective role of HM in HepG2 cells was assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Histopathology, lipid peroxidation, serum biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the protective role of HM against NaAsO2 intoxication in liver tissue. In this study, we found that co-treatment with HM significantly attenuated the NaAsO2-induced cell viability loss, intracellular ROS, and LDH release in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and the serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were notably improved by HM. HM effectively downregulated the both gene and protein expression level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Moreover, HM well-regulated the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) ratio, remarkably suppressed the release of cytochrome c, and blocked the expression of the post-apoptotic transcription factor caspase-3. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the hepatoprotective role of HM through its reduction in apoptosis, which likely involves in the modulation of MAPK/caspase-3 signaling pathways. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle In Vitro Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Cytoprotective, and Antimicrobial Properties of Essential Oil from Pistacia vera L. Variety Bronte Hull
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061212
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although the chemical composition and biological properties of some species of the genus Pistacia has been investigated, studies on hull essential oil of Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte (HEO) are currently lacking. In this work, we have carried out an in-depth phytochemical profile
[...] Read more.
Although the chemical composition and biological properties of some species of the genus Pistacia has been investigated, studies on hull essential oil of Pistacia vera L. variety Bronte (HEO) are currently lacking. In this work, we have carried out an in-depth phytochemical profile elucidation by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and an evaluation of antioxidant scavenging properties of HEO, using several different in vitro methods, checking also its cytoprotective potential on lymphocytes treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, both American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates, was also investigated. GC-MS analysis highlighted the richness of this complex matrix, with the identification of 40 derivatives. The major components identified were 4-Carene (31.743%), α-Pinene (23.584%), d-Limonene (8.002%), and 3-Carene (7.731%). The HEO showed a strong iron chelating activity and was found to be markedly active against hydroxyl radical, while scarce effects were found against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Moreover, pre-treatment with HEO was observed to significantly increase the cell viability, decreasing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. HEO was bactericidal against all the tested strains at the concentration of 7.11 mg/mL, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The obtained results demonstrate the strong free-radical scavenging activity of HEO along with remarkable cytoprotective and antimicrobial properties. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Cultivar-Specific Changes in Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Pak Choi (Brassica Rapa, Chinensis Group) by Methyl Jasmonate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051004
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products and primary metabolites were analyzed in five pak choi cultivars to determine the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolite flux from primary metabolites to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Among detected glucosinolates (total 14 glucosinolates; 9 aliphatic, 4
[...] Read more.
Glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products and primary metabolites were analyzed in five pak choi cultivars to determine the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolite flux from primary metabolites to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Among detected glucosinolates (total 14 glucosinolates; 9 aliphatic, 4 indole and 1 aromatic glucosinolates), indole glucosinolate concentrations (153–229%) and their hydrolysis products increased with MeJA treatment. Changes in the total isothiocyanates by MeJA were associated with epithiospecifier protein activity estimated as nitrile formation. Goitrin, a goitrogenic compound, significantly decreased by MeJA treatment in all cultivars. Changes in glucosinolates, especially aliphatic, significantly differed among cultivars. Primary metabolites including amino acids, organic acids and sugars also changed with MeJA treatment in a cultivar-specific manner. A decreased sugar level suggests that they might be a carbon source for secondary metabolite biosynthesis in MeJA-treated pak choi. The result of the present study suggests that MeJA can be an effective agent to elevate indole glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products and to reduce a goitrogenic compound in pak choi. The total glucosinolate concentration was the highest in “Chinese cabbage” in the control group (32.5 µmol/g DW), but indole glucosinolates increased the greatest in “Asian” when treated with MeJA. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Acteoside and Isoacteoside Protect Amyloid β Peptide Induced Cytotoxicity, Cognitive Deficit and Neurochemical Disturbances In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040895
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade
[...] Read more.
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats. Acteoside and isoacteoside further decreased extracellular Aβ 1-40 production and restored the cell viability that was decreased by Aβ 1-42 in SH-SY5Y cells. Acteoside and isoacteoside also promoted Aβ 1-40 degradation and inhibited Aβ 1-42 oligomerization in vitro. However, the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of isoacteoside exceeded those of acteoside. Isoacteoside promoted exploratory behavior and restored cortical and hippocampal dopamine levels, but acteoside did not. We suggest that acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction that was caused by Aβ 1-42 by blocking amyloid deposition via preventing amyloid oligomerization, and reversing central neuronal function via counteracting amyloid cytotoxicity. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Wedelolactone Acts as Proteasome Inhibitor in Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040729
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 25 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wedelolactone is a multi-target natural plant coumestan exhibiting cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Although several molecular targets of wedelolactone have been recognized, the molecular mechanism of its cytotoxicity has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that wedelolactone acts as an inhibitor
[...] Read more.
Wedelolactone is a multi-target natural plant coumestan exhibiting cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. Although several molecular targets of wedelolactone have been recognized, the molecular mechanism of its cytotoxicity has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that wedelolactone acts as an inhibitor of chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like activities of proteasome in breast cancer cells. The proteasome inhibitory effect of wedelolactone was documented by (i) reduced cleavage of fluorogenic proteasome substrates; (ii) accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteins with rapid turnover in tumor cells; and (iii) molecular docking of wedelolactone into the active sites of proteasome catalytic subunits. Inhibition of proteasome by wedelolactone was independent on its ability to induce reactive oxygen species production by redox cycling with copper ions, suggesting that wedelolactone acts as copper-independent proteasome inhibitor. We conclude that the cytotoxicity of wedelolactone to breast cancer cells is partially mediated by targeting proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Understanding the structural basis for inhibitory mode of wedelolactone might help to open up new avenues for design of novel compounds efficiently inhibiting cancer cells. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Biosynthesis of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors by a Newly Isolated Bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. TKU042 and Its Effect on Reducing Plasma Glucose in a Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040700
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 22 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paenibacillus sp. TKU042, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soil, produced α-glucosidase inhibitors (aGIs) in the culture supernatant when commercial nutrient broth (NB) was used as the medium for fermentation. The supernatant of fermented NB (FNB) showed stronger inhibitory activities than acarbose, a commercial
[...] Read more.
Paenibacillus sp. TKU042, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soil, produced α-glucosidase inhibitors (aGIs) in the culture supernatant when commercial nutrient broth (NB) was used as the medium for fermentation. The supernatant of fermented NB (FNB) showed stronger inhibitory activities than acarbose, a commercial anti-diabetic drug. The IC50 and maximum α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (aGIA) of FNB and acarbose against α-glucosidase were 81 μg/mL, 92% and 1395 μg/mL, 63%, respectively. FNB was found to be strongly thermostable, retaining 95% of its relative activity, even after heating at 100 °C for 30 min. FNB was also stable at various pH values. Furthermore, FNB demonstrated antioxidant activity (IC50 = 2.23 mg/mL). In animal tests, FNB showed remarkable reductions in the plasma glucose of ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice at a concentration of 200 mg/kg. Combining FNB and acarbose enhanced the effect even more, with an added advantage of eliminating diarrhea. According to HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting, the Paenibacillus sp. TKU042 aGIs were not acarbose. All of the results suggest that Paenibacillus sp. TKU042 FNB could have potential use as a health food or to treat type 2 diabetes. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Grown in Southern Italy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030660
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of
[...] Read more.
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Profile of Polyphenol Compounds of Five Muscadine Grapes Cultivated in the United States and in Newly Adapted Locations in China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030631
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes (cv. “Noble”, “Alachua”, “Carlos”, “Fry”, and “Granny Val”) cultivated in the United States (Tallahassee-Florida, TA-FL) and South China (Nanning-Guangxi, NN-GX and Pu’er-Yunnan, PE-YN) were investigated, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem
[...] Read more.
Polyphenol compositions and concentrations in skins and seeds of five muscadine grapes (cv. “Noble”, “Alachua”, “Carlos”, “Fry”, and “Granny Val”) cultivated in the United States (Tallahassee-Florida, TA-FL) and South China (Nanning-Guangxi, NN-GX and Pu’er-Yunnan, PE-YN) were investigated, using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Triple TOF MS/MS). Fourteen ellagitannins were newly identified in these muscadine grapes. The grapes grown in NN-GX accumulated higher levels of ellagic acid, methyl brevifolin carboxylate, and ellagic acid glucoside in skins, and penta-O-galloyl-glucose in seeds. In PE-YN, more flavonols were detected in skins, and higher contents of flavan-3-ols, ellagic acid, and methyl gallate were identified in seeds. Abundant seed gallic acid and flavonols were found among the grapes grown in TA-FL. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of 54 evaluation parameters, various cultivars grown in different locations could be grouped together and vice versa for the same cultivar cultivated in different regions. This is the result of the interaction between genotype and environmental conditions, which apparently influences the polyphenol synthesis and accumulation. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Effects of Nicotiflorin from Nymphaea candida against Concanavalin A-Induced and D-Galactosamine-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030587
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nymphaea candida was used to treat hepatitis in Ugyhur medicine, and nicotiflorin (kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside) is the main characteristic component in this plant. In this study, The the hepatoprotective activities of nicotiflorin from N. candida were investigated by Concanavalin A (Con A,
[...] Read more.
Nymphaea candida was used to treat hepatitis in Ugyhur medicine, and nicotiflorin (kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside) is the main characteristic component in this plant. In this study, The the hepatoprotective activities of nicotiflorin from N. candida were investigated by Concanavalin A (Con A, 20 mg/kg bw)- and d-Galactosamine (d-GalN, 800 mg/kg bw)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with nicotiflorin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg bw/day, p.o.) for ten days significantly reduced the impact of Con A toxicity (20 mg/kg bw) on the serum markers of liver injury, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The hepatic anti-oxidant parameters (malondialdehyde, MDA; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione, GSH; and nitric oxide, NO) in mice with nicotiflorin treatment were significantly antagonized for the pro-oxidant effects of Con A. Moreover, pretreatment with nicotiflorin (100 mg/kg bw) significantly decreased Con A-induced elevation in the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (p < 0.05). A protective effect was reconfirmed against d-GalN-induced chemical liver injury, elevated serum enzymatic and cytokines levels were significantly decreased by nicotiflorin, and liver homogenate antioxidant indicators were significantly restored toward normal levels. Both histopathological studies also supported the protective effects of nicotiflorin. Therefore, the presented results suggest that nicotiflorin is the potent hepatoprotective agent that could protect the liver against acute immunological and chemical injury; this ability might be attributed to its antioxidant and immunoregulation potential. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030532
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of
[...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 (FN1), lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), on HIF1A. Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Determination of Stilbenoids and Dihydroisocoumarins in Shorea roxburghii and Evaluation of Their Hepatoprotective Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020451
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 13 stilbenoids including (−)-hopeaphenol (1), (+)-isohopeaphenol (2), hemsleyanol D (3), (−)-ampelopsin H (4), vaticanols A (5), E (6), and G (7), (+)-α-viniferin (
[...] Read more.
A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 13 stilbenoids including (−)-hopeaphenol (1), (+)-isohopeaphenol (2), hemsleyanol D (3), (−)-ampelopsin H (4), vaticanols A (5), E (6), and G (7), (+)-α-viniferin (8), pauciflorol A (9), hopeafuran (10), (−)-balanocarpol (11), (−)-ampelopsin A (12), and trans-resveratrol 10-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), and two dihydroisocoumarins, phayomphenols A1 (14) and A2 (15) in the extract of Shorea roxburghii (dipterocarpaceae) was developed. According to the established protocol, distributions of these 15 polyphenols (115) in the bark and wood parts of S. roxburghii and a related plant Cotylelobium melanoxylon were evaluated. In addition, the principal polyphenols (1, 2, 8, 1315) exhibited hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine (d-galN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o. To characterize the mechanisms of action, the isolates were examined in in vitro studies assessing their effects on (i) d-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes; (ii) LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages; and (iii) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The mechanisms of action of these polyphenols (1, 2, and 8) were suggested to be dependent on the inhibition of LPS-induced macrophage activation and reduction of sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-α. However, none of the isolates reduced the cytotoxicity caused by d-GalN. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Shells Extract: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Effect and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020392
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed
[...] Read more.
Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract). Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%–2.93%, w/w). The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL), and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively). The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin), and phenol derivatives (gallic acid), showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, Its Antioxidant Activity and Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020379
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of compounds from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP). We isolated agrimoniin (AM), four flavonoid glucosides and two flavonoid glucuronides from the n-butanol fraction
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of compounds from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP). We isolated agrimoniin (AM), four flavonoid glucosides and two flavonoid glucuronides from the n-butanol fraction of AP 50% methanol extract. In addition to isolated compounds, the AR-inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of catechin, 5-flavonoids, and 4-flavonoid glucosides (known components of AP) against rat lens AR (RLAR) and DPPH assay were measured. AM showed IC50 values of 1.6 and 13.0 μM against RLAR and DPPH scavenging activity, respectively. Additionally, AM, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (LGN), quercitrin (QU), luteolin (LT) and afzelin (AZ) showed high inhibitory activity against AR and were first observed to decrease sorbitol accumulation in the rat lens under high-sorbitol conditions ex vivo with inhibitory values of 47.6%, 91.8%, 76.9%, 91.8% and 93.2%, respectively. Inhibition of recombinant human AR by AM, LGN and AZ exhibited a noncompetitive inhibition pattern. Based on our results, AP and its constituents may play partial roles in RLAR and oxidative radical inhibition. Our results suggest that AM, LGN, QU, LT and AZ may potentially be used as natural drugs for treating diabetic complications. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020300
Received: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (10299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Manganese (Mn) is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like
[...] Read more.
Manganese (Mn) is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES) on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC) assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg) to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Affinin (Spilanthol), Isolated from Heliopsis longipes, Induces Vasodilation via Activation of Gasotransmitters and Prostacyclin Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010218
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
PDF Full-text (1767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heliopsis longipes roots have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to relieve pain, mainly, toothaches. Previous studies have shown that affinin, the major alkamide of these roots, induces potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of H. longipes root extracts and
[...] Read more.
Heliopsis longipes roots have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to relieve pain, mainly, toothaches. Previous studies have shown that affinin, the major alkamide of these roots, induces potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of H. longipes root extracts and affinin on the cardiovascular system have not been investigated so far. In the present study, we demonstrated that the dichloromethane and ethanolic extracts of H. longipes roots, and affinin, isolated from these roots, produce a concentration-dependent vasodilation of rat aorta. Affinin-induced vasorelaxation was partly dependent on the presence of endothelium and was significantly blocked in the presence of inhibitors of NO, H2S, and CO synthesis (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), dl-propargylglycine (PAG), and chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP), respectively); K+ channel blockers (glibenclamide (Gli) and tetraethyl ammonium (TEA)), and guanylate cyclase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and indomethacin (INDO), respectively). Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that affinin induces vasodilation by mechanisms that involve gasotransmitters, and prostacyclin signaling pathways. These findings indicate that this natural alkamide has therapeutic potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle New Abietane and Kaurane Type Diterpenoids from the Stems of Tripterygium regelii
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010147
Received: 10 December 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eleven new abietane type (111), and one new kaurane (12), diterpenes, together with eleven known compounds (1323), were isolated and identified from the stems of Tripterygium regelii, which has been used as
[...] Read more.
Eleven new abietane type (111), and one new kaurane (12), diterpenes, together with eleven known compounds (1323), were isolated and identified from the stems of Tripterygium regelii, which has been used as a traditional folk Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in China. The structures of new compounds were characterized by means of the interpretation of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data and comparisons of their experimental CD spectra with calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 1 is the first abietane type diterpene with an 18→1 lactone ring. Compound 19 was isolated from the plants of the Tripterygium genus for the first time, and compounds 1417 were isolated from T. regelii for the first time. Triregelin I (9) showed significant cytotoxicity against A2780 and HepG2 with IC50 values of 5.88 and 11.74 µM, respectively. It was found that this compound was inactive against MCF-7 cells. The discovery of these twelve new diterpenes not only provided information on chemical substances of T. regelii, but also contributed to the chemical diversity of natural terpenoids. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Euterpe oleracea Roots and Leaflets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010061
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate
[...] Read more.
Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Effect of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. Whole Plant on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122056
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH). The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20,
[...] Read more.
Cuscuta seeds and whole plant have been used to nourish the liver and kidney. This study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Cuscuta campestris Yunck. whole plant (CCEtOH). The hepatoprotective effect of CCEtOH (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured and the fibrosis was histologically examined. CCEtOH exhibited a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and cholesterol. Histological analyses showed that fibrosis of liver induced by CCl4 were significantly reduced by CCEtOH. In addition, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg of the extract decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. We demonstrate that the hepatoprotective mechanisms of CCEtOH were likely to be associated to the decrease in MDA level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx and GRd. In addition, our findings provide evidence that C. campestris Yunck. whole plant possesses a hepatoprotective activity to ameliorate chronic liver injury. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17121979
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1) and II (2), floratheasaponin A (3), and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4), flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from
[...] Read more.
Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1) and II (2), floratheasaponin A (3), and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4), flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (13, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively) were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 13, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 13 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111899
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. In addition, berberine recruits the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex-β-Transducin Repeat Containing Protein (SCFβ-TrCP) complex to facilitate Cyclin D1 ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolysis. Knockdown of β-TrCP blocks Cyclin D1 turnover induced by berberine; blocking the protein degradation induced by berberine in HepG2 cells increases tumor cell resistance to berberine. Our results shed light on berberine′s potential as an anti-tumor agent for clinical cancer therapy. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Tapirira guianensis Aubl. Extracts Inhibit Proliferation and Migration of Oral Cancer Cells Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111839
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
PDF Full-text (2582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cancer of the head and neck is a group of upper aerodigestive tract neoplasms in which aggressive treatments may cause harmful side effects to the patient. In the last decade, investigations on natural compounds have been particularly successful in the field of anticancer
[...] Read more.
Cancer of the head and neck is a group of upper aerodigestive tract neoplasms in which aggressive treatments may cause harmful side effects to the patient. In the last decade, investigations on natural compounds have been particularly successful in the field of anticancer drug research. Our aim is to evaluate the antitumor effect of Tapirira guianensis Aubl. extracts on a panel of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Analysis of secondary metabolites classes in fractions of T. guianensis was performed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Mutagenicity effect was evaluated by Ames mutagenicity assay. The cytotoxic effect, and migration and invasion inhibition were measured. Additionally, the expression level of apoptosis-related molecules (PARP, Caspases 3, and Fas) and MMP-2 was detected using Western blot. Heterogeneous cytotoxicity response was observed for all fractions, which showed migration inhibition, reduced matrix degradation, and decreased cell invasion ability. Expression levels of MMP-2 decreased in all fractions, and particularly in the hexane fraction. Furthermore, overexpression of FAS and caspase-3, and increase of cleaved PARP indicates possible apoptosis extrinsic pathway activation. Antiproliferative activity of T. guianensis extract in HNSCC cells lines suggests the possibility of developing an anticancer agent or an additive with synergic activities associated with conventional anticancer therapy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Fucaceae: A Source of Bioactive Phlorotannins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061327
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These
[...] Read more.
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These macroalgae are endowed with several phytochemicals of great industrial interest from which phlorotannins, a class of marine-exclusive polyphenols, have gathered much attention during the last few years due to their numerous possible therapeutic properties. These compounds are very abundant in brown seaweeds such as Fucaceae and have been demonstrated to possess numerous health-promoting properties, including antioxidant effects through scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or enhancement of intracellular antioxidant defenses, antidiabetic properties through their acarbose-like activity, stimulation of adipocytes glucose uptake and protection of β-pancreatic cells against high-glucose oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators; antitumor properties by activation of apoptosis on cancerous cells and metastasis inhibition, among others. These multiple health properties render phlorotannins great potential for application in numerous therapeutical approaches. This review addresses the major contribution of phlototannins for the biological effects that have been described for seaweeds from Fucaceae. In addition, the bioavailability of this group of phenolic compounds is discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061283
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry
[...] Read more.
Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Understanding the Effectiveness of Natural Compound Mixtures in Cancer through Their Molecular Mode of Action
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030656
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many approaches to cancer management are often ineffective due to adverse reactions, drug resistance, or inadequate target specificity of single anti-cancer agents. In contrast, a combinatorial approach with the application of two or more anti-cancer agents at their respective effective dosages can achieve
[...] Read more.
Many approaches to cancer management are often ineffective due to adverse reactions, drug resistance, or inadequate target specificity of single anti-cancer agents. In contrast, a combinatorial approach with the application of two or more anti-cancer agents at their respective effective dosages can achieve a synergistic effect that boosts cytotoxicity to cancer cells. In cancer, aberrant apoptotic pathways allow cells that should be killed to survive with genetic abnormalities, leading to cancer progression. Mutations in apoptotic mechanism arising during the treatment of cancer through cancer progression can consequently lead to chemoresistance. Natural compound mixtures that are believed to have multiple specific targets with minimal acceptable side-effects are now of interest to many researchers due to their cytotoxic and chemosensitizing activities. Synergistic interactions within a drug mixture enhance the search for potential molecular targets in cancer cells. Nonetheless, biased/flawed scientific evidence from natural products can suggest false positive therapeutic benefits during drug screening. In this review, we have taken these factors into consideration when discussing the evidence for these compounds and their synergistic therapeutic benefits in cancer. While there is limited evidence for clinical efficacy for these mixtures, in vitro data suggest that these preparations merit further investigation, both in vitro and in vivo. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top