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Special Issue "Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Xing Fang

Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water quality modeling; climate change; lakes; rivers; hydrological modeling; water resources engineering; watershed hydrology; water quality monitoring; water quality analysis; eutrophication; surface hydrology; rainfall runoff modelling; aquatic ecosystems; fish habitat; regional climate modeling; stormwater managment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alan W. Groeger

Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: reservoir limnology; biogeochemistry; phytoplankton ecology; climate change; watershed processes
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Qin Qian

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrology, hydraulics and water resources with a research goal to advance process-based knowledge to allow better informed land use planning, ecological restoration design, and preservation of aquatic ecosystems; specific area includes environmental hydrodynamics, water quality modeling and solute (contaminate) transport processes in lakes, streams and groundwater; water resource monitoring and management using ubiqutious wireless sensor network; restoration design application for preservation of aquatic ecosystem in streams, lakes and estuaries

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water quality in lakes is a critical issue due to its direct influence on public health, biological integrity of natural resources, and the economy. The earth has a tremendous variety of lakes, from small ponds to Lake Baikal in Siberia, and from manmade reservoirs to natural lakes. Even though lakes and reservoirs are only a small part of water on our planet, they play a critical and important role in the Earth’s biosphere. Climate changes, including climate variability, land-use/land-cover changes, and anthropogenic changes due to various urban and industrial development, can lead to hydrological, chemical, and biological changes in watersheds and freshwater ecosystems resulting in altered water quality. To understand impacts of changes from upstream or surrounding watersheds and within a lake on water quality is important to people who live nearby or visit the lake and is also fundamental in providing better ecological and environmental strategies and mitigation methods to protect freshwater ecosystems. Dissolved oxygen and other water quality constituents have implications for the growth, reproduction, and survival of freshwater organisms such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and fish. In particular, the bottom waters of thermally stratified lakes and reservoirs can become totally devoid of oxygen due to biochemical oxygen demand and sedimentary oxygen demand. Climate variations (seasonal or inter-annual) and global climate warming directly affect the heat budget of an aquatic system through the surface heat exchange between the water and the atmosphere, and then influence water quality characteristics. An increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or other greenhouse gases is projected to cause climate warming, which would alter water temperature, ice/snow cover, and water quality characteristics in aquatic systems. Land-use/land-cover changes and anthropogenic changes affect nutrients and chemical inputs to aquatic systems. These changes are, in turn, expected to have an effect on freshwater organism populations and biodiversity. Monitoring and modeling approaches have been used by citizen volunteers, biologists, water resources managers, engineers, and scientists to understand and study water quality issues in lakes. Different monitoring techniques and modern monitoring device/sensors allow us to get more in-depth information that we could not obtain before. Advanced models or modeling methods also allow us to better understand water quality dynamics and spatial distributions in lakes that discrete data collections or monitoring cannot reveal. Monitoring data are necessary for model calibration and validation before the model can be used for scenario study, sensitivity analysis, and future projection under certain changes in watersheds and lakes.

Prof. Dr. Xing Fang
Prof. Dr. Alan W. Groeger
Prof. Dr. Qin Qian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ponds, lakes and reservoirs
  • water quality
  • freshwater ecosystem
  • climate change
  • monitoring
  • data analysis
  • models or modeling
  • anthropogenic changes

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Exploring the Spatial-Seasonal Dynamics of Water Quality, Submerged Aquatic Plants and Their Influencing Factors in Different Areas of a Lake
Water 2017, 9(9), 707; doi:10.3390/w9090707
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
The degradation of water quality in lakes and its negative effects on freshwater ecosystems have become a serious problem worldwide. Exploring the dynamics in the associated factors is essential for water pollution management and control. GIS interpolation, principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate
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The degradation of water quality in lakes and its negative effects on freshwater ecosystems have become a serious problem worldwide. Exploring the dynamics in the associated factors is essential for water pollution management and control. GIS interpolation, principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the main pollution sources in different areas of Honghu Lake. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphate (TP), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+–N), and permanganate index (CODMn) have similar characteristics and that their values gradually increased from south to north during the three seasons in Honghu Lake. The major influencing factors of water quality varied across the different areas and seasons. The relatively high concentrations of TN and TP, which might limit the growth of submerged aquatic plants, were mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. Our work suggests that spatial analyses combined with PCA are useful for investigating the factors that influence water quality and submerged aquatic plant biomass in different areas of a lake. These findings provide sound information for the future water quality management of the lake or even the entire lake basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effects of Climate Change on Lake Thermal Structure and Biotic Response in Northern Wilderness Lakes
Water 2017, 9(9), 678; doi:10.3390/w9090678
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Climate disrupts aquatic ecosystems directly through changes in temperature, wind, and precipitation, and indirectly through watershed effects. Climate-induced changes in northern lakes include longer ice-free season, stronger stratification, browning, shifts in algae, and more cyanobacterial blooms. We compared retrospective temperature-depth relationships modeled using
[...] Read more.
Climate disrupts aquatic ecosystems directly through changes in temperature, wind, and precipitation, and indirectly through watershed effects. Climate-induced changes in northern lakes include longer ice-free season, stronger stratification, browning, shifts in algae, and more cyanobacterial blooms. We compared retrospective temperature-depth relationships modeled using MINLAKE2012 with biogeochemical changes recorded in sediment cores. Four lakes in Voyageurs National Park (VOYA) and four lakes in Isle Royale National Park (ISRO) were studied. Meteorological data from International Falls and Duluth, Minnesota, were used for VOYA and ISRO, respectively. Model output was processed to analyze epilimnetic and hypolimnetic water temperatures and thermal gradients between two periods (1962–1986, 1987–2011). Common trends were increased summer epilimnion temperatures and, for deep lakes, increased frequency and duration of thermoclines. Changes in diatom communities differed between shallow and deep lakes and the parks. Based on changes in benthic and tychoplanktonic communities, shallow lake diatoms respond to temperature, mixing events, pH, and habitat. Changes in deep lakes are evident in the deep chlorophyll layer community of Cyclotella and Discostella species, mirroring modeled changes in thermocline depth and stability, and in Asterionella and Fragilaria species, reflecting the indirect effects of in-lake and watershed nutrient cycling and spring mixing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Refuge Lake Reclassification in 620 Minnesota Cisco Lakes under Future Climate Scenarios
Water 2017, 9(9), 675; doi:10.3390/w9090675
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Cisco (Coregonus artedi) is the most common coldwater stenothermal fish in Minnesota lakes. Water temperature (T) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in lakes are important controls of fish growth and reproduction and likely change with future climate warming. Built upon a previous
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Cisco (Coregonus artedi) is the most common coldwater stenothermal fish in Minnesota lakes. Water temperature (T) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in lakes are important controls of fish growth and reproduction and likely change with future climate warming. Built upon a previous study, this study uses a modified method to identify which of 620 cisco lakes in Minnesota can still support cisco populations under future climate and therefore be classified as cisco refuge lakes. The previous study used oxythermal stress parameter TDO3, the temperature at DO of 3 mg/L, simulated only from deep virtual lakes to classify 620 cisco lakes. Using four categories of virtual but representative cisco lakes in modified method, a one-dimensional water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used to simulate daily T and DO profiles in 82 virtual lakes under the past (1961–2008) and two future climate scenarios. A multiyear average of 31-day largest TDO3 over variable benchmark (VB) periods, AvgATDO3VB, was calculated from simulated T and DO profiles using FishHabitat2013. Contour plots of AvgATDO3VB for four categories of virtual lakes were then developed to reclassify 620 cisco lakes into Tier 1 (AvgATDO3VB < 11 °C) or Tier 2 refuge lakes, and Tier 3 non-refuge lakes (AvgATDO3VB > 17 °C). About 20% of 620 cisco lakes are projected to be refuge lakes under future climate scenarios, which is a more accurate projection (improving the prediction accuracy by ~6.5% from the previous study) since AvgATDO3VB was found to vary by lake categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Reconstruction of an Acid Water Spill in a Mountain Reservoir
Water 2017, 9(9), 613; doi:10.3390/w9090613
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
The Olivargas Reservoir is located in a remote and scarcely monitored area in the Odiel River Basin (Southwest Spain) and is used for domestic, agricultural and mining water supplies. In contrast with highly monitored reservoirs, this paper explores the application of the CE-QUAL-W2
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The Olivargas Reservoir is located in a remote and scarcely monitored area in the Odiel River Basin (Southwest Spain) and is used for domestic, agricultural and mining water supplies. In contrast with highly monitored reservoirs, this paper explores the application of the CE-QUAL-W2 model, that was designed by Cole and Wells in 2005, to a poorly monitored reservoir and the utility of the results obtained. The model satisfactorily reproduced the water head measured continuously over three years, temperature (T), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH measured bimonthly in a depth profile near the dam. A significant increase in TDS and decrease in DO and pH profiles were observed for four months, especially in the hypolimnion. The model reproduced changes in the parameters by assuming the occurrence of an acid water spill into the reservoir. A comparison of calculated results and measured TDS and DO prompted the conclusion that the spill consisted of approximately 3000 t of TDS (mainly sulfates) and 26 t of Fe(II) flowing into the reservoir for approximately 15 days at rates of approximately two and 0.02 kg/s, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Diel and Seasonal Patterns in Continuously Monitored Water Quality at Fixed Sites in Two Adjacent Embayments of the Tidal Freshwater Potomac River
Water 2017, 9(8), 624; doi:10.3390/w9080624
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Water quality patterns in two adjacent embayments of the tidal freshwater Potomac River were compared using continuously monitored data. The two embayments, the tidal Occoquan and Gunston Cove, are shallow embayments fed by tributaries which vary in their watershed attributes. The tidal Occoquan
[...] Read more.
Water quality patterns in two adjacent embayments of the tidal freshwater Potomac River were compared using continuously monitored data. The two embayments, the tidal Occoquan and Gunston Cove, are shallow embayments fed by tributaries which vary in their watershed attributes. The tidal Occoquan has a larger watershed and a dam just upstream from the head of tide whereas Gunston Cove has a large wastewater treatment plant just upstream of the embayment. Water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were collected at 15 min intervals at representative locations in the two embayments from April through November of 2012. Mean daily values of water quality variables exhibited similar seasonal patterns at both sites which were related to seasonal patterns of forcing functions such as temperature, light and freshwater inflows. Three two-week intervals were examined in great detail. During a mid-summer period of stable conditions and low flow, both embayments exhibited strong and consistent diel (light cycle-based) periodicity in temperature, DO, and pH. Specific conductance exhibited semi-diel (tidal cycle-based) periodicity. The two other two-week intervals were punctuated by substantial flow events which resulted in major changes in daily mean values and disruptions to the typical diel or semi-diel cycles. The large rainfall event related to Hurricane Sandy caused a major disruption in diel and semi-diel cycles. Some cycles were quickly re-established and others took a week or more. The two embayments exhibited similar behavior in most aspects. Site-specific factors such as differences in the frequency and magnitude of tributary flow pulses and the presence of treated sewage discharge at Gunston Cove helped explain some of the differences observed between the two embayments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Temperature Variations and Thermal Structure of a Subtropical Deep River-Run Reservoir before and after Impoundment
Water 2017, 9(8), 603; doi:10.3390/w9080603
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic CE-QUAL-W2 model was configured for a deep subtropical river-run reservoir, the Xiluodu Reservoir (XLDR), in China to simulate water temperature in the first two years of impoundment (2013–2014) using measured data as model input. It was calibrated using observed temperature
[...] Read more.
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic CE-QUAL-W2 model was configured for a deep subtropical river-run reservoir, the Xiluodu Reservoir (XLDR), in China to simulate water temperature in the first two years of impoundment (2013–2014) using measured data as model input. It was calibrated using observed temperature profiles near the dam and the outflow temperatures. Observed daily temperatures at four gauging stations upstream or downstream of XLDR before (2000–2012) and after the impoundment (4 May 2013) were analyzed and fitted with a sine function representing seasonal temperature variation. The fitted annual temperature phase shifts showed no phase delay in XLDR area before the impoundment but revealed a phase delay about 17 days between outflow and inflow after the impoundment, which was not caused by the air temperature variation. The simulated temperatures verified a similar phase delay after the impoundment. The simulated temperatures, water ages, and vertical temperature gradients demonstrated an average metalimnetic deepening rate of 0.49 m/day (average inflow ~4500 m3/s) while the largest rate due to massive inflow (~15,000 m3/s) was 1.67 m/day. The W2 model was run under hypothetic scenarios of different inflow/outflow rates and outflow withdrawn elevations. The results revealed that greater inflow/outflow rate could lead to higher metalimnetic deepening rate and smaller outflow phase delay, while deeper outflow withdrawn could lead to deeper metalimnion and larger epilimnetic depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Construction, and Application of an Inexpensive, High-Resolution Water Sampler
Water 2017, 9(8), 578; doi:10.3390/w9080578
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
The cost of high-resolution water sampling devices for ecological studies and water quality analyses can be prohibitive. Moreover, the potential for operator error in the use of complicated sampling equipment can lead to inaccuracies. Here we describe the construction and operation of an
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The cost of high-resolution water sampling devices for ecological studies and water quality analyses can be prohibitive. Moreover, the potential for operator error in the use of complicated sampling equipment can lead to inaccuracies. Here we describe the construction and operation of an inexpensive and easy-to-use water sampler that achieves a water column sampling resolution of approximately 1 cm. The device is driven by a peristaltic pump and is constructed entirely of non-corrosive and non-reactive materials. The sampler has no moving parts and was completely reliable in fieldwork on temperate and Antarctic lakes. The device is especially suited for the collection of water samples from calm or stagnant surface waters, such as lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and deep swamps or other wetlands. In addition, because its components are unaffected by corrosive salts and sulfides, the device is suitable for sampling calm inlet waters, including shallow bays and estuaries. Because of its low cost, simple construction, compact design, and precision performance, this water sampler is an excellent option for studying and monitoring shallow to moderately deep (<50 m) natural waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Long Term Trends and Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in a Subtropical Reservoir Basin
Water 2017, 9(7), 545; doi:10.3390/w9070545
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluates the long term trends and seasonal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the Fei-Tsui Reservoir basin in Northern Taiwan during the period of 2000 to 2015. The non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall test was conducted to identify the trends of
[...] Read more.
This study evaluates the long term trends and seasonal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the Fei-Tsui Reservoir basin in Northern Taiwan during the period of 2000 to 2015. The non-parametric seasonal Mann-Kendall test was conducted to identify the trends of DOC and its potential drivers (e.g., temperature, runoff, atmospheric acid deposition and stream water chemistry). The monthly tributaries and water surface DOC concentrations in Fei-Tsui Reservoir had showed strong temporal and seasonal variability. The sulfate (SO4) concentration had exhibited statistically significant decreasing trend over a period of 16 years. The decreasing trends of anions (SO4 and NO3) and base cations (Ca and Mg) as well as increasing trends of pH and acidification index (ACI) in Fei-Tsui Reservoir and streams indicated recovery from acidification. However, there was no significant annual trend in DOC concentration of Fei-Tsui Reservoir and streams. Significant positive correlation was obtained between DOC and trophic state index of Fei-Tsui Reservoir. The results suggested that DOC concentration at the water surface of Fei-Tsui Reservoir was mainly driven by the re-oligotrophication and temperature effects rather than a decrease in atmospheric sulfur deposition. Stream DOC concentration was largely determined by the temporal variability in temperature and rainfall. We concluded that climatic and hydrological factors are the dominant drivers for stream DOC dynamics in the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Chlorophyll-A Prediction of Lakes with Different Water Quality Patterns in China Based on Hybrid Neural Networks
Water 2017, 9(7), 524; doi:10.3390/w9070524
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
One of the most important water quality problems affecting lakes and reservoirs is eutrophication, which is caused by multiple physical and chemical factors. As a representative index of eutrophication, the concentration of chlorophyll-a has always been a key indicator monitored by environmental managers.
[...] Read more.
One of the most important water quality problems affecting lakes and reservoirs is eutrophication, which is caused by multiple physical and chemical factors. As a representative index of eutrophication, the concentration of chlorophyll-a has always been a key indicator monitored by environmental managers. The most influential factors on chlorophyll-a may be dependent on the different water quality patterns in lakes. In this study, data collected from 27 lakes in different provinces of China during 2009–2011 were analyzed. The self-organizing map (SOM) was first applied on the datasets and the lakes were classified into four clusters according to 24 water quality parameters. Comparison amongst the clusters revealed that Cluster I was the least polluted and at the lowest trophic level, while Cluster IV was the most polluted and at the highest trophic level. The genetic algorithm optimized back-propagation neural network (GA-BPNN) was applied to each lake cluster to select the most influential input variables for chlorophyll-a. The results of the four clusters showed that the performance of GA-BPNN was satisfied with nearly half of the input variables selected from the predictor pool. The selected factors varied for the lakes in different clusters, which indicates that the control for eutrophication should be separate for lakes in different provinces of one country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Mapping Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Using RapidEye Satellite Data: The Example of Lake Kummerow (Germany)
Water 2017, 9(7), 510; doi:10.3390/w9070510
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and plays an important role as a long-term indictor for the trophic state of freshwater lakes. Variations in water level height, nutrient condition, light availability and water temperature affect the growth and
[...] Read more.
Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and plays an important role as a long-term indictor for the trophic state of freshwater lakes. Variations in water level height, nutrient condition, light availability and water temperature affect the growth and species composition of SAV. Detailed information about seasonal variations in littoral bottom coverage are still unknown, although these effects are expected to mask climate change-related long-term changes, as derived by snapshots of standard monitoring methods included in the European Water Framework Directive. Remote sensing offers concepts to map SAV quickly, within large areas, and at short intervals. This study analyses the potential of a semi-empirical method to map littoral bottom coverage by a multi-seasonal approach. Depth-invariant indices were calculated for four Atmospheric & Topographic Correction (ATCOR2) atmospheric corrected RapidEye data sets acquired at Lake Kummerow, Germany, between June and August 2015. RapidEye data evaluation was supported by in situ measurements of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water column and bottom reflectance. The processing chain was able to differentiate between SAV and sandy sediment. The successive increase of SAV coverage from June to August was correctly monitored. Comparisons with in situ and Google Earth imagery revealed medium accuracies (kappa coefficient = 0.61, overall accuracy = 72.2%). The analysed time series further revealed how water constituents and temporary surface phenomena such as sun glint or algal blooms influence the identification success of lake bottom substrates. An abundant algal bloom biased the interpretability of shallow water substrate such that a differentiation of sediments and SAV patches failed completely. Despite the documented limitations, mapping of SAV using RapidEye seems possible, even in eutrophic lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Transport of Conservative and “Smart” Tracers in a First-Order Creek: Role of Transient Storage Type
Water 2017, 9(7), 485; doi:10.3390/w9070485
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Using “smart” tracers such as Resazurin (Raz) allows assessment of sediment-water interactions and associated biological activity in streams. We compared two approaches to simulate the effects of transient storage (TS) on the transport of conservative and reactive tracers. The first approach considered TS
[...] Read more.
Using “smart” tracers such as Resazurin (Raz) allows assessment of sediment-water interactions and associated biological activity in streams. We compared two approaches to simulate the effects of transient storage (TS) on the transport of conservative and reactive tracers. The first approach considered TS as composed of metabolically active and metabolically inactive compartments, while the second model approach accounted for the surface transient storage (STS) and hyporheic transient storage (HTS). Experimental data were collected at a perennial first-order creek in Maryland, MD, USA, by injecting the conservative tracer bromide (Br) and the reactive (Raz) tracer and sampling water at two weir stations. The STS–HTS approach led to a more accurate simulation of Br transport and tails of the Raz and its product Rezorufin (Rru) breakthrough curves. Sediments support large microbial communities, and the STS–HTS model in creeks provides additional parameters to characterize the habitats of microbial water-quality indicator organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Nutrients and Phytoplankton in a Shallow, Hypereutrophic Urban Lake: Prospects for Restoration
Water 2017, 9(6), 431; doi:10.3390/w9060431
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
University Lake, a shallow, artificial, urban lake adjacent to the campus of Louisiana State University, has a long history of water quality problems, including algal blooms, fish kills, and high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Periodic dredging of the lake is necessary to
[...] Read more.
University Lake, a shallow, artificial, urban lake adjacent to the campus of Louisiana State University, has a long history of water quality problems, including algal blooms, fish kills, and high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Periodic dredging of the lake is necessary to prevent its return to swampland. This study was undertaken to elucidate the roles of allochthonous versus autochthonous nutrients as causes of water quality problems in the lake, with the expectation that this information would help identify strategies for lake restoration. Photosynthetic rates and concentrations of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton pigments were measured over a period of one year. More than 90% of the chlorophyll a (chl a) in the lake was accounted for by Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, and Bacillariophyceae. Concentrations of chl a, which averaged 75 μg L−1, fluctuated weekly during dry weather by as much as a factor of four. Phytoplankton growth rates were about 30% higher 1–2 days after rain events than after periods of dry weather, the implication being that allochthonous nutrient loading has a significant effect on the dynamics of the phytoplankton community in the lake. Therefore, dredging of sediments will likely produce no long-term improvement in water quality. More than 100 storm drains currently discharge into the lake, and diversion of those drains may be the most cost-effective strategy for effecting a long-term improvement in water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Dredging and Lanthanum-Modified Clay on Water Quality Variables in an Enclosure Study in a Hypertrophic Pond
Water 2017, 9(6), 380; doi:10.3390/w9060380
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
An enclosure experiment was conducted between July and September 2009 to compare the effectiveness of a phosphate fixative, the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay Phoslock® (LMB), dredging, and their combination in controlling eutrophication in a hypertrophic urban pond in Heesch, The Netherlands. In total,
[...] Read more.
An enclosure experiment was conducted between July and September 2009 to compare the effectiveness of a phosphate fixative, the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay Phoslock® (LMB), dredging, and their combination in controlling eutrophication in a hypertrophic urban pond in Heesch, The Netherlands. In total, 25 water quality variables were monitored. Multivariate analysis revealed that the combination LMB-treated and dredged enclosures deviated most from the pond (reference) and the controls, and showed the strongest eutrophication reduction. Overall, dredging significantly increased transparency, lowered turbidity, and improved the oxygen conditions in the enclosures compared to non-dredged ones. Nonetheless, one dredged enclosure deviated dramatically from the others, which might reflect methodological issues with dredging. The LMB treatment appeared to be less effective at mitigating eutrophication than dredging, and phosphate concentrations even increased during the experiment in the LMB-treated enclosures. Chemical equilibrium modeling suggested that humic substances could have formed complexes with lanthanum (La) from the LMB, rendering it unavailable for intercepting P over the course of the enclosure experiment. Residual lanthanum concentrations in combination dredging and LMB treatments exceeded the Dutch standard 10-fold. Total zooplankton abundance, and particularly Cladocera, increased in all enclosures over the course of the experiment. The limited effect of LMB in the enclosure experiment and the violation of the Dutch La standard when combined with dredging disqualify LMB as an intervention agent in the restoration of the pond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Variations in Spectral Absorption Properties of Phytoplankton, Non-algal Particles and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Lake Qiandaohu
Water 2017, 9(5), 352; doi:10.3390/w9050352
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
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Abstract
Light absorption by phytoplankton, non-algal particles (NAP) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was investigated at 90 sites of a clear, deep artificial lake (Lake Qiandaohu) to study natural variability of absorption coefficients. Our study shows that CDOM absorption is a
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Light absorption by phytoplankton, non-algal particles (NAP) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was investigated at 90 sites of a clear, deep artificial lake (Lake Qiandaohu) to study natural variability of absorption coefficients. Our study shows that CDOM absorption is a major contributor to the total absorption signal in Lake Qiandaohu during all seasons, except autumn when it has an equivalent contribution as total particle absorption. The exponential slope of CDOM absorption varies within a narrow range around a mean value of 0.0164 nm−1 ( s d = 0.00176 nm−1). Our study finds some evidence for thIS autochthonous production of CDOM in winter and spring. Absorption by phytoplankton, and therefore its contribution to total absorption, is generally greatest in spring, suggesting that phytoplankton growth in Lake Qiandaohu occurs predominantly in the spring. Phytoplankton absorption in freshwater lakes generally has a direct relationship with chlorophyll-a concentration, similar to the one established for open ocean waters. The NAP absorption, whose relative contribution to total absorption is highest in summer, has a spectral shape that can be well fitted by an exponential function with an average slope of 0.0065 nm−1 ( s d = 0.00076 nm−1). There is significant spatial variability present in the summer of Lake Qiandaohu, especially in the northwestern and southwestern extremes where the optical properties of the water column are strongly affected by the presence of allochthonous matter. Variations in the properties of the particle absorption spectra with depths provides evidence that the water column was vertically inhomogeneous and can be monitored with an optical measurement program. Moreover, the optical inhomogeneity in winter is less obvious. Our study will support the parameterization of the Bio-optical model for Lake Qiandaohu from in situ or remotely sensing aquatic color signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Aesthetic Value of Multifunctional Lakes Using an Enhanced Visual Quality Method
Water 2017, 9(4), 233; doi:10.3390/w9040233
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Aesthetic value is an important factor that should be considered in lake environments. However, there is a lack of research examining and undertaking investigation of the aesthetic value of multifunctional lake ecosystems. There are two major purposes for this study: (1) to define
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Aesthetic value is an important factor that should be considered in lake environments. However, there is a lack of research examining and undertaking investigation of the aesthetic value of multifunctional lake ecosystems. There are two major purposes for this study: (1) to define and investigate the important perceived attributes related to the aesthetic value of multifunctional lakes using a video-questionnaire method and (2) to provide some suggestions for the further development of a visual quality index facilitating decision making in management and policies. An enhanced visual quality method was used in this study to record the conditions of the multifunctional lakes in each location in the study area. The findings of the study defined water color and clarity, percentage of water hyacinth, types of debris, percentage of debris, and facilities and land values as the important attributes related to aesthetic value in multifunctional lakes. In summary, the perceived attributes in the visual ecology criteria indicated more significant relationships with the functional morphology criteria than the financial profitability criteria. The results showed that the video-questionnaire method used in this study is efficient, easy to use, and understandable in terms of identifying and measuring aesthetic value in relation to perceptions of perceived attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
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