Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Changes in Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Drought across South Korea
Next Article in Special Issue
Refuge Lake Reclassification in 620 Minnesota Cisco Lakes under Future Climate Scenarios
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Potential Risk on Two Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites from River Basin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reconstruction of an Acid Water Spill in a Mountain Reservoir
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2017, 9(9), 678; doi:10.3390/w9090678

Effects of Climate Change on Lake Thermal Structure and Biotic Response in Northern Wilderness Lakes

1
St. Croix Watershed Research Station, Science Museum of Minnesota, Marine on St. Croix, MN 55047, USA
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
3
Great Lakes Inventory and Monitoring Network, National Park Service, 2800 Lake Shore Drive East, Ashland, WI 54806, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling in Lakes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5399 KB, uploaded 8 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Climate disrupts aquatic ecosystems directly through changes in temperature, wind, and precipitation, and indirectly through watershed effects. Climate-induced changes in northern lakes include longer ice-free season, stronger stratification, browning, shifts in algae, and more cyanobacterial blooms. We compared retrospective temperature-depth relationships modeled using MINLAKE2012 with biogeochemical changes recorded in sediment cores. Four lakes in Voyageurs National Park (VOYA) and four lakes in Isle Royale National Park (ISRO) were studied. Meteorological data from International Falls and Duluth, Minnesota, were used for VOYA and ISRO, respectively. Model output was processed to analyze epilimnetic and hypolimnetic water temperatures and thermal gradients between two periods (1962–1986, 1987–2011). Common trends were increased summer epilimnion temperatures and, for deep lakes, increased frequency and duration of thermoclines. Changes in diatom communities differed between shallow and deep lakes and the parks. Based on changes in benthic and tychoplanktonic communities, shallow lake diatoms respond to temperature, mixing events, pH, and habitat. Changes in deep lakes are evident in the deep chlorophyll layer community of Cyclotella and Discostella species, mirroring modeled changes in thermocline depth and stability, and in Asterionella and Fragilaria species, reflecting the indirect effects of in-lake and watershed nutrient cycling and spring mixing. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermocline; lake modeling; paleolimnology; diatoms; carbon burial thermocline; lake modeling; paleolimnology; diatoms; carbon burial
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Edlund, M.B.; Almendinger, J.E.; Fang, X.; Hobbs, J.M.R.; VanderMeulen, D.D.; Key, R.L.; Engstrom, D.R. Effects of Climate Change on Lake Thermal Structure and Biotic Response in Northern Wilderness Lakes. Water 2017, 9, 678.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top