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Correction published on 14 November 2014, see Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4422-4423.

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Viruses 2014, 6(10), 3991-4004; doi:10.3390/v6103991

Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission

1
Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0610, USA
2
Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 18 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
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Abstract

The term arbovirus denotes viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting arthropods. The infection of these vectors produces a certain set of evolutionary pressures on the virus; involving migration from the midgut, where the blood meal containing the virus is processed, to the salivary glands, in order to transmit the virus to the next host. During this process the virus is subject to numerous bottlenecks, stochastic events that significantly reduce the number of viral particles that are able to infect the next stage. This article reviews the latest research on the bottlenecks that occur in arboviruses and the way in which these affect the evolution and fitness of these viruses. In particular we focus on the latest research on three important arboviruses, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Chikungunya viruses and compare the differing effects of the mosquito bottlenecks on these viruses as well as other evolutionary pressures that affect their evolution and transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: bottlenecks; evolution; arboviruses; viral fitness; West Nile virus; Chikungunya virus; Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus bottlenecks; evolution; arboviruses; viral fitness; West Nile virus; Chikungunya virus; Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Forrester, N.L.; Coffey, L.L.; Weaver, S.C. Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission. Viruses 2014, 6, 3991-4004.

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