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Viruses 2014, 6(11), 4628-4663; doi:10.3390/v6114628

Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

1
Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Department of Virology, Arboviruses and Insect Vectors, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris cedex 15, France
4
Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 24 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Arboviruses and Arthropod Vectors)
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Abstract

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chikungunya; mosquito; vector; transmission; adaptation chikungunya; mosquito; vector; transmission; adaptation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Coffey, L.L.; Failloux, A.-B.; Weaver, S.C. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions. Viruses 2014, 6, 4628-4663.

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