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Viruses 2015, 7(3), 1238-1257; doi:10.3390/v7031238

Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group E and Its Involvement in Diseases

1
INSERM ESPRI, ERI29/EA2216, SFR ScInBioS, LabEx IGO "Immunotherapy Graft Oncology", Réseau épigénétique et réseau canaux ioniques du Cancéropole Grand Ouest, European University of Brittany, Brest 29609, France
2
LUBEM (EA3882), University of Brest Laboratory of Virology, CHRU Cavale Blanche, Brest 29200, France
3
Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
4
Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy, CHRU Morvan, Brest 29609, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Curt Hagedorn
Received: 2 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 23 February 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1117 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Human endogenous retrovirus group E (HERV-E) elements are stably integrated into the human genome, transmitted vertically in a Mendelian manner, and are endowed with transcriptional activity as alternative promoters or enhancers. Such effects are under the control of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTR) that are organized into three HERV-E phylogenetic subgroups, namely LTR2, LTR2B, and LTR2C. Moreover, HERV-E expression is tissue-specific, and silenced by epigenetic constraints that may be disrupted in cancer, autoimmunity, and human placentation. Interest in HERV-E with regard to these conditions has been stimulated further by concerns regarding the capacity of HERV-E elements to modify the expression of neighboring genes and/or to produce retroviral proteins, including immunosuppressive env peptides, which in turn may induce (auto)-antibody (Ab) production. Finally, better understanding of HERV-E elements may have clinical applications for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: HERV-E, DNA methylation, cancer, autoimmunity HERV-E, DNA methylation, cancer, autoimmunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Le Dantec, C.; Vallet, S.; Brooks, W.H.; Renaudineau, Y. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group E and Its Involvement in Diseases. Viruses 2015, 7, 1238-1257.

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