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Viruses 2015, 7(1), 1-26; doi:10.3390/v7010001

Origins of the Endogenous and Infectious Laboratory Mouse Gammaretroviruses

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Academic Editor: Welkin Johnson
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [808 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

The mouse gammaretroviruses associated with leukemogenesis are found in the classical inbred mouse strains and in house mouse subspecies as infectious exogenous viruses (XRVs) and as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) inserted into their host genomes. There are three major mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) subgroups in laboratory mice: ecotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic. These MuLV subgroups differ in host range, pathogenicity, receptor usage and subspecies of origin. The MuLV ERVs are recent acquisitions in the mouse genome as demonstrated by the presence of many full-length nondefective MuLV ERVs that produce XRVs, the segregation of these MuLV subgroups into different house mouse subspecies, and by the positional polymorphism of these loci among inbred strains and individual wild mice. While some ecotropic and xenotropic ERVs can produce XRVs directly, others, especially the pathogenic polytropic ERVs, do so only after recombinations that can involve all three ERV subgroups. Here, I describe individual MuLV ERVs found in the laboratory mice, their origins and geographic distribution in wild mouse subspecies, their varying ability to produce infectious virus and the biological consequences of this expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: mouse endogenous retroviruses; mouse leukemia viruses; house mouse subspecies; ecotropic/xenotropic/polytropic gammaretroviruses; retrovirus restriction factors; recombinant mouse gammaretroviruses mouse endogenous retroviruses; mouse leukemia viruses; house mouse subspecies; ecotropic/xenotropic/polytropic gammaretroviruses; retrovirus restriction factors; recombinant mouse gammaretroviruses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kozak, C.A. Origins of the Endogenous and Infectious Laboratory Mouse Gammaretroviruses. Viruses 2015, 7, 1-26.

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