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Viruses 2015, 7(3), 939-968; doi:10.3390/v7030939

Differential Expression of HERV-K (HML-2) Proviruses in Cells and Virions of the Teratocarcinoma Cell Line Tera-1

1
Graduate Program in Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
2
Graduate Program in Genetics, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
3
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Welkin Johnson
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 19 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Viruses)
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Abstract

Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K (HML-2)) proviruses are among the few endogenous retroviral elements in the human genome that retain coding sequence. HML-2 expression has been widely associated with human disease states, including different types of cancers as well as with HIV-1 infection. Understanding of the potential impact of this expression requires that it be annotated at the proviral level. Here, we utilized the high throughput capabilities of next-generation sequencing to profile HML-2 expression at the level of individual proviruses and secreted virions in the teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-1. We identified well-defined expression patterns, with transcripts emanating primarily from two proviruses located on chromosome 22, only one of which was efficiently packaged. Interestingly, there was a preference for transcripts of recently integrated proviruses, over those from other highly expressed but older elements, to be packaged into virions. We also assessed the promoter competence of the 5’ long terminal repeats (LTRs) of expressed proviruses via a luciferase assay following transfection of Tera-1 cells. Consistent with the RNASeq results, we found that the activity of most LTRs corresponded to their transcript levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: HERV-K (HML-2); endogenous retrovirus; gene expression; next-generation sequencing HERV-K (HML-2); endogenous retrovirus; gene expression; next-generation sequencing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhardwaj, N.; Montesion, M.; Roy, F.; Coffin, J.M. Differential Expression of HERV-K (HML-2) Proviruses in Cells and Virions of the Teratocarcinoma Cell Line Tera-1. Viruses 2015, 7, 939-968.

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