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Special Issue "Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2012)

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Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Graham F. Hatfull (Website)

Chair, Department of Biological Sciences, HHMI Professor, Eberly Family Professor of Biotechnology, 376 Crawford Hall, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, 4249 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Fax: +412 624 4870
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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Phage Lambda P Protein: Trans-Activation, Inhibition Phenotypes and their Suppression
Viruses 2013, 5(2), 619-653; doi:10.3390/v5020619
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 21 January 2013 / Accepted: 29 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initiation of bacteriophage λ replication depends upon interactions between the oriλ DNA site, phage proteins O and P, and E. coli host replication proteins. P exhibits a high affinity for DnaB, the major replicative helicase for unwinding double stranded DNA. [...] Read more.
The initiation of bacteriophage λ replication depends upon interactions between the oriλ DNA site, phage proteins O and P, and E. coli host replication proteins. P exhibits a high affinity for DnaB, the major replicative helicase for unwinding double stranded DNA. The concept of P-lethality relates to the hypothesis that P can sequester DnaB and in turn prevent cellular replication initiation from oriC. Alternatively, it was suggested that P-lethality does not involve an interaction between P and DnaB, but is targeted to DnaA. P-lethality is assessed by examining host cells for transformation by ColE1-type plasmids that can express P, and the absence of transformants is attributed to a lethal effect of P expression. The plasmid we employed enabled conditional expression of P, where under permissive conditions, cells were efficiently transformed. We observed that ColE1 replication and plasmid establishment upon transformation is extremely sensitive to P, and distinguish this effect from P-lethality directed to cells. We show that alleles of dnaB protect the variant cells from P expression. P-dependent cellular filamentation arose in ΔrecA or lexA[Ind-] cells, defective for SOS induction. Replication propagation and restart could represent additional targets for P interference of E. coli replication, beyond the oriC-dependent initiation step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessCommunication Lysogenic Conversion and Phage Resistance Development in Phage Exposed Escherichia coli Biofilms
Viruses 2013, 5(1), 150-161; doi:10.3390/v5010150
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, three-day old mature biofilms of Escherichia coli were exposed once to either a temperate Shiga-toxin encoding phage (H-19B) or an obligatory lytic phage (T7), after which further dynamics in the biofilm were monitored. As such, it was found that [...] Read more.
In this study, three-day old mature biofilms of Escherichia coli were exposed once to either a temperate Shiga-toxin encoding phage (H-19B) or an obligatory lytic phage (T7), after which further dynamics in the biofilm were monitored. As such, it was found that a single dose of H-19B could rapidly lead to a near complete lysogenization of the biofilm, with a subsequent continuous release of infectious H-19B particles. On the other hand, a single dose of T7 rapidly led to resistance development in the biofilm population. Together, our data indicates a profound impact of phages on the dynamics within structured bacterial populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Bacteriophage 434 Hex Protein Prevents RecA-Mediated Repressor Autocleavage
Viruses 2013, 5(1), 111-126; doi:10.3390/v5010111
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a λimm434 lysogen, two proteins are expressed from the integrated prophage. Both are encoded by the same mRNA whose transcription initiates at the PRM promoter. One protein is the 434 repressor, needed for the establishment and maintenance of lysogeny. [...] Read more.
In a λimm434 lysogen, two proteins are expressed from the integrated prophage. Both are encoded by the same mRNA whose transcription initiates at the PRM promoter. One protein is the 434 repressor, needed for the establishment and maintenance of lysogeny. The other is Hex which is translated from an open reading frame that apparently partially overlaps the 434 repressor coding region. In the wild type host, disruption of the gene encoding Hex destabilizes λimm434 lysogens. However, the hex mutation has no effect on lysogen stability in a recA host. These observations suggest that Hex functions by modulating the ability of RecA to stimulate 434 repressor autocleavage. We tested this hypothesis by identifying and purifying Hex to determine if this protein inhibited RecA‑stimulated autocleavage of 434 repressor in vitro. Our results show that in vitro a fragment of Hex prevents RecA-stimulated autocleavage of 434 repressor, as well as the repressors of the closely related phage P22. Surprisingly, Hex does not prevent RecA‑stimulated autocleavage of phage lambda repressor, nor the E. coli LexA repressor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Insights into the Functions of a Prophage Recombination Directionality Factor
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2417-2431; doi:10.3390/v4112417
Received: 21 August 2012 / Revised: 4 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recombination directionality factors (RDFs), or excisionases, are essential players of prophage excisive recombination. Despite the essentially catalytic role of the integrase in both integrative and excisive recombination, RDFs are required to direct the reaction towards excision and to prevent re-integration of the [...] Read more.
Recombination directionality factors (RDFs), or excisionases, are essential players of prophage excisive recombination. Despite the essentially catalytic role of the integrase in both integrative and excisive recombination, RDFs are required to direct the reaction towards excision and to prevent re-integration of the prophage genome when entering a lytic cycle. KplE1, HK620 and numerous (pro)phages that integrate at the same site in enterobacteria genomes (such as the argW tRNA gene) all share a highly conserved recombination module. This module comprises the attL and attR recombination sites and the RDF and integrase genes. The KplE1 RDF was named TorI after its initial identification as a negative regulator of the tor operon. However, it was characterized as an essential factor of excisive recombination. In this study, we designed an extensive random mutagenesis protocol of the torI gene and identified key residues involved in both functions of the TorI protein. We show that, in addition to TorI-TorR protein-protein interaction, TorI interacts in solution with the IntS integrase. Moreover, in vitro, TorR and IntS appear to compete for TorI binding. Finally, our mutagenesis results suggest that the C-terminal part of the TorI protein is dedicated to protein-protein interactions with both proteins TorR and IntS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Genomic Sequences of Two Novel Levivirus Single-Stranded RNA Coliphages (Family Leviviridae): Evidence for Recombination in Environmental Strains
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1548-1568; doi:10.3390/v4091548
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacteriophages are likely the most abundant entities in the aquatic environment, yet knowledge of their ecology is limited. During a fecal source-tracking study, two genetically novel Leviviridae strains were discovered. Although the novel strains were isolated from coastal waters 1130 km apart [...] Read more.
Bacteriophages are likely the most abundant entities in the aquatic environment, yet knowledge of their ecology is limited. During a fecal source-tracking study, two genetically novel Leviviridae strains were discovered. Although the novel strains were isolated from coastal waters 1130 km apart (North Carolina and Rhode Island, USA), these strains shared 97% nucleotide similarity and 97–100% amino acid similarity. When the novel strains were compared to nine Levivirus genogroup I strains, they shared 95–100% similarity among the maturation, capsid and lysis proteins, but only 84–85% in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. Further bioinformatic analyses suggested a recombination event occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of viral recombinants in environmental Leviviridae ssRNA bacteriophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Spatial Vulnerability: Bacterial Arrangements, Microcolonies, and Biofilms as Responses to Low Rather than High Phage Densities
Viruses 2012, 4(5), 663-687; doi:10.3390/v4050663
Received: 2 February 2012 / Revised: 13 April 2012 / Accepted: 19 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of bacteria to survive and propagate can be dramatically reduced upon exposure to lytic bacteriophages. Study of this impact, from a bacterium’s perspective, tends to focus on phage-bacterial interactions that are governed by mass action, such as can be observed within [...] Read more.
The ability of bacteria to survive and propagate can be dramatically reduced upon exposure to lytic bacteriophages. Study of this impact, from a bacterium’s perspective, tends to focus on phage-bacterial interactions that are governed by mass action, such as can be observed within continuous flow or similarly planktonic ecosystems. Alternatively, bacterial molecular properties can be examined, such as specific phage‑resistance adaptations. In this study I address instead how limitations on bacterial movement, resulting in the formation of cellular arrangements, microcolonies, or biofilms, could increase the vulnerability of bacteria to phages. Principally: (1) Physically associated clonal groupings of bacteria can represent larger targets for phage adsorption than individual bacteria; and (2), due to a combination of proximity and similar phage susceptibility, individual bacteria should be especially vulnerable to phages infecting within the same clonal, bacterial grouping. Consistent with particle transport theory—the physics of movement within fluids—these considerations are suggestive that formation into arrangements, microcolonies, or biofilms could be either less profitable to bacteria when phage predation pressure is high or require more effective phage-resistance mechanisms than seen among bacteria not living within clonal clusters. I consider these ideas of bacterial ‘spatial vulnerability’ in part within a phage therapy context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Bacteriophages with the Ability to Degrade Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Biofilms
Viruses 2012, 4(4), 471-487; doi:10.3390/v4040471
Received: 16 February 2012 / Revised: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. UTIs are usually managed with antibiotic therapy, but over the years, antibiotic-resistant strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) have emerged. The formation of biofilms further complicates [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. UTIs are usually managed with antibiotic therapy, but over the years, antibiotic-resistant strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) have emerged. The formation of biofilms further complicates the treatment of these infections by making them resistant to killing by the host immune system as well as by antibiotics. This has encouraged research into therapy using bacteriophages (phages) as a supplement or substitute for antibiotics. In this study we characterized 253 UPEC in terms of their biofilm-forming capabilities, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance. Three phages were then isolated (vB_EcoP_ACG-C91, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12) which were able to lyse 80.5% of a subset (42) of the UPEC strains able to form biofilms. Correlation was established between phage sensitivity and specific serotypes of the UPEC strains. The phages’ genome sequences were determined and resulted in classification of vB_EcoP_ACG-C91 as a SP6likevirus, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 as a T4likevirus and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12 as T1likevirus. We assessed the ability of the three phages to eradicate the established biofilm of one of the UPEC strains used in the study. All phages significantly reduced the biofilm within 2–12 h of incubation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Understanding Bacteriophage Specificity in Natural Microbial Communities
Viruses 2013, 5(3), 806-823; doi:10.3390/v5030806
Received: 12 February 2013 / Revised: 1 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studying the coevolutionary dynamics between bacteria and the bacteriophage viruses that infect them is critical to understanding both microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning. Phages can play a key role in shaping bacterial population dynamics and can significantly alter both intra- and inter-specific [...] Read more.
Studying the coevolutionary dynamics between bacteria and the bacteriophage viruses that infect them is critical to understanding both microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning. Phages can play a key role in shaping bacterial population dynamics and can significantly alter both intra- and inter-specific competition among bacterial hosts. Predicting how phages might influence community stability and apparent competition, however, requires an understanding of how bacteria-phage interaction networks evolve as a function of host diversity and community dynamics. Here, we first review the progress that has been made in understanding phage specificity, including the use of experimental evolution, we then introduce a new dataset on natural bacteriophages collected from the phyllosphere of horse chestnut trees, and finally we highlight that bacterial sensitivity to phage is rarely a binary trait and that this variation should be taken into account and reported. We emphasize that there is currently insufficient evidence to make broad generalizations about phage host range in natural populations, the limits of phage adaptation to novel hosts, or the implications of phage specificity in shaping microbial communities. However, the combination of experimental and genomic approaches with the study of natural communities will allow new insight to the evolution and impact of phage specificity within complex bacterial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Utility of the Bacteriophage RB69 Polymerase gp43 as a Surrogate Enzyme for Herpesvirus Orthologs
Viruses 2013, 5(1), 54-86; doi:10.3390/v5010054
Received: 1 December 2012 / Revised: 16 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 8 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viral polymerases are important targets in drug discovery and development efforts. Most antiviral compounds that are currently approved for treatment of infection with members of the herpesviridae family were shown to inhibit the viral DNA polymerase. However, biochemical studies that shed light [...] Read more.
Viral polymerases are important targets in drug discovery and development efforts. Most antiviral compounds that are currently approved for treatment of infection with members of the herpesviridae family were shown to inhibit the viral DNA polymerase. However, biochemical studies that shed light on mechanisms of drug action and resistance are hampered primarily due to technical problems associated with enzyme expression and purification. In contrast, the orthologous bacteriophage RB69 polymerase gp43 has been crystallized in various forms and therefore serves as a model system that provides a better understanding of structure–function relationships of polymerases that belong the type B family. This review aims to discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities of the phage surrogate with emphasis placed on its utility in the discovery and development of anti-herpetic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview A Genetic Approach to the Development of New Therapeutic Phages to Fight Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Wound Infections
Viruses 2013, 5(1), 15-53; doi:10.3390/v5010015
Received: 10 November 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent participant in wound infections. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains has created significant problems in the treatment of infected wounds. Phage therapy (PT) has been proposed as a possible alternative approach. Infected wounds are the perfect place [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent participant in wound infections. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains has created significant problems in the treatment of infected wounds. Phage therapy (PT) has been proposed as a possible alternative approach. Infected wounds are the perfect place for PT applications, since the basic condition for PT is ensured; namely, the direct contact of bacteria and their viruses. Plenty of virulent (“lytic”) and temperate (“lysogenic”) bacteriophages are known in P. aeruginosa. However, the number of virulent phage species acceptable for PT and their mutability are limited. Besides, there are different deviations in the behavior of virulent (and temperate) phages from their expected canonical models of development. We consider some examples of non-canonical phage-bacterium interactions and the possibility of their use in PT. In addition, some optimal approaches to the development of phage therapy will be discussed from the point of view of a biologist, considering the danger of phage-assisted horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and from the point of view of a surgeon who has accepted the Hippocrates Oath to cure patients by all possible means. It is also time now to discuss the possible approaches in international cooperation for the development of PT. We think it would be advantageous to make phage therapy a kind of personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The Staphylococci Phages Family: An Overview
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3316-3335; doi:10.3390/v4123316
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 23 November 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to their crucial role in pathogenesis and virulence, phages of Staphylococcus aureus have been extensively studied. Most of them encode and disseminate potent staphylococcal virulence factors. In addition, their movements contribute to the extraordinary versatility and adaptability of this prominent pathogen [...] Read more.
Due to their crucial role in pathogenesis and virulence, phages of Staphylococcus aureus have been extensively studied. Most of them encode and disseminate potent staphylococcal virulence factors. In addition, their movements contribute to the extraordinary versatility and adaptability of this prominent pathogen by improving genome plasticity. In addition to S. aureus, phages from coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are gaining increasing interest. Some of these species, such as S. epidermidis, cause nosocomial infections and are therefore problematic for public health. This review provides an overview of the staphylococcal phages family extended to CoNS phages. At the morphological level, all these phages characterized so far belong to the Caudovirales order and are mainly temperate Siphoviridae. At the molecular level, comparative genomics revealed an extensive mosaicism, with genes organized into functional modules that are frequently exchanged between phages. Evolutionary relationships within this family, as well as with other families, have been highlighted. All these aspects are of crucial importance for our understanding of evolution and emergence of pathogens among bacterial species such as Staphylococci. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Interaction of Bacteriophage l with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3162-3178; doi:10.3390/v4113162
Received: 5 October 2012 / Revised: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 27 October 2012 / Published: 15 November 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (2344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of [...] Read more.
The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Function and Regulation of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) / CRISPR Associated (Cas) Systems
Viruses 2012, 4(10), 2291-2311; doi:10.3390/v4102291
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 10 October 2012 / Accepted: 11 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phages are the most abundant biological entities on earth and pose a constant challenge to their bacterial hosts. Thus, bacteria have evolved numerous ‘innate’ mechanisms of defense against phage, such as abortive infection or restriction/modification systems. In contrast, the clustered r [...] Read more.
Phages are the most abundant biological entities on earth and pose a constant challenge to their bacterial hosts. Thus, bacteria have evolved numerous ‘innate’ mechanisms of defense against phage, such as abortive infection or restriction/modification systems. In contrast, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems provide acquired, yet heritable, sequence-specific ‘adaptive’ immunity against phage and other horizontally-acquired elements, such as plasmids. Resistance is acquired following viral infection or plasmid uptake when a short sequence of the foreign genome is added to the CRISPR array. CRISPRs are then transcribed and processed, generally by CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins, into short interfering RNAs (crRNAs), which form part of a ribonucleoprotein complex. This complex guides the crRNA to the complementary invading nucleic acid and targets this for degradation. Recently, there have been rapid advances in our understanding of CRISPR/Cas systems. In this review, we will present the current model(s) of the molecular events involved in both the acquisition of immunity and interference stages and will also address recent progress in our knowledge of the regulation of CRISPR/Cas systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Structural Aspects of the Interaction of Dairy Phages with Their Host Bacteria
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1410-1424; doi:10.3390/v4091410
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 23 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowledge of phage-host interactions at a fundamental level is central to the design of rational strategies for the development of phage-resistant strains that may be applied in industrial settings. Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus, [...] Read more.
Knowledge of phage-host interactions at a fundamental level is central to the design of rational strategies for the development of phage-resistant strains that may be applied in industrial settings. Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus, negatively impact on dairy fermentation processes with serious economic implications. In recent years a wealth of information on structural protein assembly and topology has become available relating to phages infecting Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis, which act as models for structural analyses of dairy phages. In this review, we explore the role of model tailed phages, such as T4 and SPP1, in advancing our knowledge regarding interactions between dairy phages and their hosts. Furthermore, the potential of currently investigated dairy phages to in turn serve as model systems for this particular group of phages is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1034-1074; doi:10.3390/v4071034
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian [...] Read more.
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research) Print Edition available

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