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The Staphylococci Phages Family: An Overview
Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie Bactérienne, Faculté de Sciences, IBMM, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Gosselies, B-6141, Belgium
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Received: 1 November 2012; in revised form: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 23 November 2012
Abstract: Due to their crucial role in pathogenesis and virulence, phages of Staphylococcus aureus have been extensively studied. Most of them encode and disseminate potent staphylococcal virulence factors. In addition, their movements contribute to the extraordinary versatility and adaptability of this prominent pathogen by improving genome plasticity. In addition to S. aureus, phages from coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are gaining increasing interest. Some of these species, such as S. epidermidis, cause nosocomial infections and are therefore problematic for public health. This review provides an overview of the staphylococcal phages family extended to CoNS phages. At the morphological level, all these phages characterized so far belong to the Caudovirales order and are mainly temperate Siphoviridae. At the molecular level, comparative genomics revealed an extensive mosaicism, with genes organized into functional modules that are frequently exchanged between phages. Evolutionary relationships within this family, as well as with other families, have been highlighted. All these aspects are of crucial importance for our understanding of evolution and emergence of pathogens among bacterial species such as Staphylococci.
Keywords: bacteriophages; Staphylococcus; horizontal transfer; virulence
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Deghorain, M.; Van Melderen, L. The Staphylococci Phages Family: An Overview. Viruses 2012, 4, 3316-3335.
Deghorain M, Van Melderen L. The Staphylococci Phages Family: An Overview. Viruses. 2012; 4(12):3316-3335.
Deghorain, Marie; Van Melderen, Laurence. 2012. "The Staphylococci Phages Family: An Overview." Viruses 4, no. 12: 3316-3335.