Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1548-1568; doi:10.3390/v4091548
Article

Genomic Sequences of Two Novel Levivirus Single-Stranded RNA Coliphages (Family Leviviridae): Evidence for Recombination in Environmental Strains

1 US Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL, 32561, USA 2 William Carey University College of Osteopathic Medicine, 498 Tuscan Avenue, Hattiesburg, MS 39401, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2012; in revised form: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research)
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Abstract: Bacteriophages are likely the most abundant entities in the aquatic environment, yet knowledge of their ecology is limited. During a fecal source-tracking study, two genetically novel Leviviridae strains were discovered. Although the novel strains were isolated from coastal waters 1130 km apart (North Carolina and Rhode Island, USA), these strains shared 97% nucleotide similarity and 97–100% amino acid similarity. When the novel strains were compared to nine Levivirus genogroup I strains, they shared 95–100% similarity among the maturation, capsid and lysis proteins, but only 84–85% in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene. Further bioinformatic analyses suggested a recombination event occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of viral recombinants in environmental Leviviridae ssRNA bacteriophages.
Keywords: male-specific coliphage; Leviviridae; viral recombinants; ssRNA virus; FRNA; bacteriophage

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MDPI and ACS Style

Friedman, S.D.; Snellgrove, W.C.; Genthner, F.J. Genomic Sequences of Two Novel Levivirus Single-Stranded RNA Coliphages (Family Leviviridae): Evidence for Recombination in Environmental Strains. Viruses 2012, 4, 1548-1568.

AMA Style

Friedman SD, Snellgrove WC, Genthner FJ. Genomic Sequences of Two Novel Levivirus Single-Stranded RNA Coliphages (Family Leviviridae): Evidence for Recombination in Environmental Strains. Viruses. 2012; 4(9):1548-1568.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Friedman, Stephanie D.; Snellgrove, Wyatt C.; Genthner, Fred J. 2012. "Genomic Sequences of Two Novel Levivirus Single-Stranded RNA Coliphages (Family Leviviridae): Evidence for Recombination in Environmental Strains." Viruses 4, no. 9: 1548-1568.

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