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Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages
Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Department of Chemistry and QOPNA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2012; in revised form: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Abstract: Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.
Keywords: bacteriophages; mammalian viruses; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; viral photoinactivation process
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MDPI and ACS Style
Costa, L.; Faustino, M.A.F.; Neves, M.G.P.M.S.; Cunha, Â.; Almeida, A. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages. Viruses 2012, 4, 1034-1074.
Costa L, Faustino MAF, Neves MGPMS, Cunha Â, Almeida A. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages. Viruses. 2012; 4(7):1034-1074.
Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide. 2012. "Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages." Viruses 4, no. 7: 1034-1074.