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Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1034-1074; doi:10.3390/v4071034
Review

Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

1
, 2
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 and 1,*
Received: 11 May 2012; in revised form: 12 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bacteriophage Research)
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Abstract: Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.
Keywords: bacteriophages; mammalian viruses; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; viral photoinactivation process bacteriophages; mammalian viruses; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; viral photoinactivation process
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, L.; Faustino, M.A.F.; Neves, M.G.P.M.S.; Cunha, Â.; Almeida, A. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages. Viruses 2012, 4, 1034-1074.

AMA Style

Costa L, Faustino MAF, Neves MGPMS, Cunha Â, Almeida A. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages. Viruses. 2012; 4(7):1034-1074.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide. 2012. "Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages." Viruses 4, no. 7: 1034-1074.



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