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Special Issue "Risk Assessment and Management"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Elena Cristina Rada

Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, Trento I-38123, Italy & Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, University of Insubria, 46 Via G.B. Vico 46, Varese 21100, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390461282613
Fax: +39-04-6128-2672
Interests: municipal solid waste characterization; collection; treatment; valorization
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lucian-Ionel Cioca

Industrial Engineering and Management Department, Faculty of Engineering, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, 10 Victoriei Blv., 550024, Sibiu, Romania
Website | E-Mail
Interests: management; human resources management; occupational health and safety management; production systems engineering; ergonomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Risk is defined as the chance of harmful effects to human health or to ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor. Risk assessment encompasses three pillars; environmental concerns, social/cultural development, and economic dimensions in the built environment. The second pillar concerns risk assessment and also education. In order to enlarge the impact of this Special Issue, the authors are asked to submit works not only on risk assessment but also on risk management. Risk assessment allows defining priorities of intervention in many cases of concern. Risk management can integrate the previous item with the analysis of solutions aimed to protect human health from many pathways of human exposure. In particular, but not exclusively, these pathways can concern water, air, waste, sites to be remediated. The interest of this special issue towards these pathways is related to the non-negligible effects on human health that can be found in spite to the compliance of regulations on environmental management. Safety and Health at Work is a topic that can focus on a particular aspect of risk. The purpose of this Special Issue is to enhance the knowledge of scientists, scholars, engineers, economists and graduate students on present ongoing research activities in order to exchange research ideas in the area of risk assessment and management. The Guest Editors will select high quality research to proceed with blind peer reviews. Reviewers will be selected among researchers active in the field, whose works are present in international databases.

Dr. Elena Cristina Rada
Prof. Dr. Lucian-Ionel Cioca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ecological Risk Assessment
  • Economic Risk Assessment
  • Environmental Risk Assessment
  • Human Health Risk Assessment
  • Safety and Health at Work
  • Risk Management
  • Risk Communication
  • Risk Assessment Education

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Risk Indicators and Road Accident Analysis for the Period 2012–2016
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1530; doi:10.3390/su9091530
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Road accidents are a major societal issue for every country. The purpose of this paper is to assess the number of traffic and road accidents depending on a series of variables (collision mode, road configuration, conditions of occurrence, road category, type of vehicle
[...] Read more.
Road accidents are a major societal issue for every country. The purpose of this paper is to assess the number of traffic and road accidents depending on a series of variables (collision mode, road configuration, conditions of occurrence, road category, type of vehicle involved, personal factors, and length of time of the driving license) in Romania from 2012–2016. The analysis of the road accident trend identifies the causes of accidents, road safety performance indicators, and risk indicators. Having these identified data, a framework is proposed for improving the road safety system and reducing accidents. The Romanian Police, the National Institute of Statistics (NIS) in Romania, and the European Commission provided the data used for this analysis. The data obtained from these databases are analysed and evaluated according to a series of variables. This paper will outline an informative image of road accidents and establish a framework for reducing their effects in road transport. As a result of the analysis, we have seen that the combination of vehicles and personal factors influences the number of traffic and road accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Driving Force Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Flash Floods in Sichuan Province
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1527; doi:10.3390/su9091527
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Flash floods are important natural disasters in China that can result in casualties and property losses. In this paper, we present a quantitative approach to examine the driving factors of the spatiotemporal distribution of flash floods based on a geographical detector. The environmental
[...] Read more.
Flash floods are important natural disasters in China that can result in casualties and property losses. In this paper, we present a quantitative approach to examine the driving factors of the spatiotemporal distribution of flash floods based on a geographical detector. The environmental background condition (elevation, slope, etc.), precipitation, and human activity factors, as well as changes in these factors, are investigated in Sichuan Province via a driving force analysis. The results show that heavy precipitation is the most important driver, with power of determinant (PD) values of 0.71 and 0.77 for the spatial distributions of flash floods from 1995 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2014, respectively. The PDs of population density are 0.65 and 0.78 in the same two periods, while those of elevation are 0.59 and 0.73. Precipitation variability is the most important driver of the spatiotemporal variability of flash floods, followed by GDP density and population density, with PDs of 0.48, 0.29, and 0.27, respectively. The results show that human activities and precipitation are the primary driving forces of the spatiotemporal variability of flash floods and should be the focus of flash flood prevention and forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting Spatial and Temporal Concentration Variability of Pharmaceuticals: Comparison between Two WWTPs
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1466; doi:10.3390/su9081466
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The presence of emerging organic micropollutants (such as pharmaceuticals) in sewage has been, for a long time, an issue of great concern within the international scientific debate. This item represents one of the main challenges related to a sustainable development, with particular concern
[...] Read more.
The presence of emerging organic micropollutants (such as pharmaceuticals) in sewage has been, for a long time, an issue of great concern within the international scientific debate. This item represents one of the main challenges related to a sustainable development, with particular concern to the public health control. While most of the work has been concentrated on their detection and the evaluation of their average level, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of concentrations of these compounds in the effluent and its capability to affect the concentrations in time of the receiving water body. In this study, three sampling campaigns were carried out at two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Varese area (Northern Italy) with the aim of monitoring the occurrence of some pharmaceuticals to evaluate their removal efficiency. The detected pharmaceuticals were: Ofloxacin, Ibuprofen, Atenolol, Bezafibrate, Carbamazepine, Salbutamol, Cyclophosphamide and Hydrochlorothiazide. The results obtained, together with the analysis of the characteristics of the chemicals and of the two WWTPs, allowed evaluating the factors affecting the spatial and temporal concentration variability in effluent waters and the potential influence of this variability in driving the exposure of the aquatic ecosystems in the receiving water body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Crude Oil Contaminated Sites: Evaluation by Using Risk Assessment Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1365; doi:10.3390/su9081365
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Soils contaminated with toxic and persistent pollutants pose different and serious hazards to the environment and human health. Multidisciplinary procedures that are considering models for the prediction of risk for long-term exposure are needed. The present paper illustrates the operating mode and utility
[...] Read more.
Soils contaminated with toxic and persistent pollutants pose different and serious hazards to the environment and human health. Multidisciplinary procedures that are considering models for the prediction of risk for long-term exposure are needed. The present paper illustrates the operating mode and utility of an environmental software able toe0) integrates the dose-response modeling as a major part of hazard characterization in order to assess the quantitative risk from carcinogens. In this way, risk assessment is used as a method for the investigation of contaminated sites. The method is demonstrated on a Romanian field site, contaminated with petroleum products. For the assessment of human health risks from oil-contaminated sites, the contaminants of concern are considered as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), and heavy metals, chemicals known as human carcinogens. Quantitative risk calculations revealed an individual risk of 1.07 × 10−5 for children and 6.89 × 10−6 for adults. The paper represents a utility example of an environmental software solution that could be considered by decision-making factors in approving certain projects. The software tool is helpful for protecting the environment and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Trend Analysis of Construction Industrial Accidents in Korea from 2011 to 2015
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1297; doi:10.3390/su9081297
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of construction accidents occurred from 2011 to 2015 in Korea. The annual reports from the Ministry of Employment and Labor, Korea (MOEL), and the annual reports from the Statistics Korea were used for
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of construction accidents occurred from 2011 to 2015 in Korea. The annual reports from the Ministry of Employment and Labor, Korea (MOEL), and the annual reports from the Statistics Korea were used for the analysis in this study. The gender, age, company size and accident types were chosen as a category to analyze the trend of various occupational accidents. In order to analyze the characteristics of construction accidents, incidence rates (IRs) and mortality rates (MRs) were calculated. Further, T-tests and ANOVA analysis were performed to discover the relationships among IRs, MRs, and chosen categories. Male workers’ IRs and MRs were significantly higher than those of female workers. Construction workers over 40 years of age suffered the most from occupational injuries. In terms of company size, as company size increases, both IRs and MRs tended to decrease. Occupational injuries caused by falls were higher than other accident types each year. This paper will be able to provide information on occupational accidents for establishing strategies to reduce the accident rate in construction sectors of Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
Open AccessArticle Considerations on Applying the Method for Assessing the Level of Safety at Work
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1263; doi:10.3390/su9071263
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
The application of the method for assessing the level of safety at work starts with a document that contains the cover page, the description of the company (name, location, core business, organizational chart etc.), description of the work system, a detailed list of
[...] Read more.
The application of the method for assessing the level of safety at work starts with a document that contains the cover page, the description of the company (name, location, core business, organizational chart etc.), description of the work system, a detailed list of its components, and a brief description of the assessment method. It continues with a Microsoft Excel document, which represents the actual application of the method and, finally, there is another document presenting conclusions, proposals, and prioritizations, which leads to the execution of the Prevention and Protection Plan. The present paper approaches the issue of developing the Microsoft Excel document, an essential part of the method for assessing the level of safety at work. The document is divided into a variable number of worksheets, showing the risk categories of general, specific, and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Evaluation and Application of the TRIZ Method for Increasing Eco-Innovative Levels in SMEs
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1125; doi:10.3390/su9071125
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If in the past, the success of innovation was measured primarily in the economic sphere, recently the non-economic sphere has increasingly become more of a matter of corporate management and, therefore, of innovation management. Management’s acquisition of non-economic aspects has been strongly influenced
[...] Read more.
If in the past, the success of innovation was measured primarily in the economic sphere, recently the non-economic sphere has increasingly become more of a matter of corporate management and, therefore, of innovation management. Management’s acquisition of non-economic aspects has been strongly influenced by the vision of sustainable development. Sustainability is a direction of action important for innovation as well, integrating economic, social, and environmental responsibility in the management of innovation, leading to sustainability-oriented innovation (SOI). Research on SOI approached innovation processes has been carried out in large companies, however in recent years the use of TRIZ (teoriya resheniya izobretatelskikh zadach) tools has been tried for SOI. The TRIZ-based approach is a valuable tool because it does not require an encyclopedic knowledge of field-specific technology and it enables the expansion of the scope of problem solutions beyond the skills of the team members. This paper discusses the concepts of sustainability, innovation, and risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for the purpose of developing a flow chart for the implementation of the TRIZ method in SMEs and for evaluating the state of innovation in such companies. Through the use of the TRIZ method in the field of SMEs, fast and efficient processes, products, and sustainable services have been obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1115; doi:10.3390/su9071115
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace) as well as the
[...] Read more.
In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace) as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%), bedrooms (77%) and living rooms (74%) were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA) acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female) is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS). On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion environment to create a healthy home environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
Open AccessArticle Using an AHP-ISM Based Method to Study the Vulnerability Factors of Urban Rail Transit System
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1065; doi:10.3390/su9061065
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
As a sustainable means of public transportation, urban rail transit system undergoes rapid expansion in China. How to provide a safe and reliable service has been the subject of growing attention in this context. However, such work is challenging because rail transit systems
[...] Read more.
As a sustainable means of public transportation, urban rail transit system undergoes rapid expansion in China. How to provide a safe and reliable service has been the subject of growing attention in this context. However, such work is challenging because rail transit systems are quite vulnerable and influenced by a set of interacting factors. Studying these vulnerability factors will contribute significantly to the operation of rail transit system. From this perspective, this paper made an exploration of the vulnerability factors based on an integrated method consisting of AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling). Based on literature review, 21 vulnerability factors were identified. Subsequently, expert elicitation was employed to ascertain the importance of each factor and the interrelations among them. The results suggest that management and individual factors have the highest importance weights and the interrelations among vulnerability factors could be expressed as a five-layer structure, in which management factors were inclined to be at the lower level. The research provides valuable information for decision makers to take proactive strategies and reinforcement policies to guarantee safety operation of urban rail transit system and ensure urban public safety, which could promote the sustainable development of cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Water Environmental Cumulative Risk Assessment Based on Control Unit and Management Platform Application in Plain River Network
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 975; doi:10.3390/su9060975
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract
As the gradual deterioration of the environment, the method of environmental risk assessment has been developed from basing only on a single source to basing on a cumulative risk source. In accordance with the water environment features of the plain river network area,
[...] Read more.
As the gradual deterioration of the environment, the method of environmental risk assessment has been developed from basing only on a single source to basing on a cumulative risk source. In accordance with the water environment features of the plain river network area, a cumulative risk assessment system of water environment in the plain river network area was established in this paper, the design process for which could be divided into three step: (1) Control unit divided reasonably was chosen as the basic unit for water quality management. (2) On that basis, according to the characteristics of the plain river network area, the cumulative risk indexes were selected. The index weight is calculated using entropy method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), which could determine the risk grade of each control unit. (3) The cumulative risk assessment method is coupled to the existing water environment management platform. The platform with a dynamic database can realize the dynamic calculation and visualization of the cumulative risk grade. In this paper, the Zhejiang area of Taihu Basin was selected to be the research target as the typical plain river network area. Thirty-five control units were divided with regional water environment and control section. Taking the data in the year 2011 as example, the proposed cumulative risk assessment method was used to identify the control units in different grades and the results demonstrated that the numbers of high-, medium-, low- and extremely low-risk control units are 13, 12, 5 and 5, respectively. It is necessary to give priority to the high-risk control unit. Therefore, the cumulative risk assessment method based on the control unit provides an essential theoretical basis for reducing the probability of water pollution and reducing the degree of water pollution damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Management of a Tourist Village Establishment in Mountainous Area through Analysis of Costs and Incomes
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 875; doi:10.3390/su9060875
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The popularity of rural areas and especially the mountainous ones, as a possibility to spend the vacation has increased in most countries. Almost all mountain areas can provide great opportunities for the development of various forms of rural tourism, there being many examples
[...] Read more.
The popularity of rural areas and especially the mountainous ones, as a possibility to spend the vacation has increased in most countries. Almost all mountain areas can provide great opportunities for the development of various forms of rural tourism, there being many examples according to which many mountain areas, through appropriate and effective strategies of capitalizing the resources through the forms of rural tourism, start from the pioneer stage to a real valuable alternative in socio-economic terms for the rural area. One of the concepts that are increasingly used is the “tourist village”, its main issue, consisting in the return of the investment, an aspect that we will discuss in this paper. The paper presents an analysis of the way in which the occupancy degree affects the period of amortization of the initial investment. Concretely, in the case of the medium-sized tourist village, the minimum occupancy degree for the amortization of the initial investment, starts from about 25% for the investment without a loan, but subsidy in proportion of 50% and reaches at about 85% in the case of an investment with loan, for a period of 10 years, without advance or subsidy and with an interest of 7%. Initial investments were established for a holiday village in the Romanian countryside. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Reduce Heavy Metals Uptake and Mitigate Their Toxicity in Wheat Seedling
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 790; doi:10.3390/su9050790
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heavy metal pollution is not only a hazard to living organisms but also an important worldwide environmental concern. Experiments were performed to investigate the physiological mechanisms of magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (nano-Fe3O4) mitigation of the toxicity
[...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution is not only a hazard to living organisms but also an important worldwide environmental concern. Experiments were performed to investigate the physiological mechanisms of magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (nano-Fe3O4) mitigation of the toxicity of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) in wheat seedlings. All the Petri dishes with germinating seedlings (1d) were covered, sealed with parafilm, and placed in a dark growth chamber. All parameters (seedling growth inhibition, heavy metal accumulation, enzymatic activities, and reducing effects of nano-Fe3O4 on heavy metal toxicity) were analyzed only after five days. The results showed that the tested heavy metals significantly affected the growth of wheat seedling by decreasing root length, shoot length and even death at 10 mM concentration in the case of Cd and Cu. Heavy metals exposure also showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidases (POD) activities decreased significantly when the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly higher in wheat seedlings. Addition of magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (2000 mg/L) in each heavy metal solution (1 mM) significantly decreased the growth inhibition and activated protective mechanisms to reduce oxidative stress induced by heavy metals in the wheat seedlings. The reducing effects of nano-Fe3O4 against heavy metals stress could be dependent on the increase in the enzyme activity (SOD and POD). Their protective role was confirmed by the decrease in MDA content. The alleviating effect of nano-Fe3O4 is associated with their adsorption capacity of heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Potential Rockfalls on a Highway at High Slopes in Cold-Arid Areas (Northwest Xinjiang, China)
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 414; doi:10.3390/su9030414
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
In the steep mountainous areas in northwest Xinjiang, where rock mass is broken seriously due to intense freeze thaw weathering, rockfall is one of the most common geological hazards on highway high slopes. Engineering geological investigations on geological hazards along a segment of
[...] Read more.
In the steep mountainous areas in northwest Xinjiang, where rock mass is broken seriously due to intense freeze thaw weathering, rockfall is one of the most common geological hazards on highway high slopes. Engineering geological investigations on geological hazards along a segment of the G219 highway was conducted, indicating that rockfalls on the high slopes threaten the safety of vehicles on the highway seriously. In this study, a combination of field investigations, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation methods was performed to identify unstable high slopes, simulate the rockfall trajectories and assess the rockfall hazard in the study area. The results show that there are five high slopes (i.e., W01, W02, …, W05) where rockfall hazard is extremely serious. Considering both the total kinetic energy and the accumulation rate of blocks, rockfall influence area zonation was performed, leading to the conclusions that the sections of highway on W01 to W05 are located at the medium-intensity low-accumulation zone, high-intensity medium-accumulation zone, high-intensity low-accumulation zone, high-intensity low-accumulation zone and medium-intensity high-accumulation zone, respectively. Based on the analysis, a zonation map was accomplished, which could help engineers select effective mitigation measures against rockfalls to avoid casualty and property losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Managing Reputational Risk through Environmental Management and Reporting: An Options Theory Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 376; doi:10.3390/su9030376
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reputation is a complex and multidimensional concept that may be organized in downside and upside reputational risk. In this article, we present a formal modelling for the management capabilities of environmental management and reporting over reputational risk, considering that reputational risk is becoming
[...] Read more.
Reputation is a complex and multidimensional concept that may be organized in downside and upside reputational risk. In this article, we present a formal modelling for the management capabilities of environmental management and reporting over reputational risk, considering that reputational risk is becoming increasingly important for organizations and it directly depends on the information available about companies’ environmental performances. As long as the effectiveness of communication and disclosure plays a key role in the process, the usefulness of environmental management and reporting as a hedging instrument for reputational risk is addressed through different levels of information transparency. When considering a scenario of voluntary reporting, we show that environmentally concerned companies can reduce the cost of environmental management as a reputational risk strategy, as well as reducing the potential loss of reputational value from reputational threats and increasing the potential profit from reputational opportunities. In the context of mandatory reporting, we highlight the role of assurance companies as bearers of the risk of bad reputations for non-concerned companies. As a result, this novel approach applies theoretical oriented research from options theory to reputational risk management literature, so that it benefits from the option’s well known theory, robustness, and conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Applications of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire: A Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1514; doi:10.3390/su9091514
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability seeks to provide economically viable products in an environmentally friendly way while respecting worker rights. Physical wellbeing forms part of these rights. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) diminish productivity, cause absence from work, impose costs on the public health system and can cast doubt
[...] Read more.
Sustainability seeks to provide economically viable products in an environmentally friendly way while respecting worker rights. Physical wellbeing forms part of these rights. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) diminish productivity, cause absence from work, impose costs on the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company or a product. The objective of the present work is to review the literature on the application of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) on a worldwide level. In this work, the use of the NMQ has been classified by categories of knowledge, countries and years. The search was made using “Web of Science-Core Collection”. In total, 259 articles were chosen from scientific journals and conferences related, according to the title and or abstract, to the practical application of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the NMQ has been applied mainly in three sectors: “activities related to treating human health and social issues”, “manufacturing industries”, and “agriculture, livestock, fishing, and forestry”. The NMQ is an indirect method commonly used individually or complemented with other methods for evaluating the MSD and possible associated psychosocial and labour risks. The use of NMQ can help in the evaluation of the sustainability of a company. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
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