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Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1466; doi:10.3390/su9081466

Factors Affecting Spatial and Temporal Concentration Variability of Pharmaceuticals: Comparison between Two WWTPs

1
Department of Science and High Technology, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, 21100 Varese, Italy
2
Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy
3
Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, 21100 Varese, Italy
4
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento, Italy
5
Preclinical Department, Faculty of Medicine, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Victoriei Bd. 10, 550024 Sibiu, România
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [854 KB, uploaded 18 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

The presence of emerging organic micropollutants (such as pharmaceuticals) in sewage has been, for a long time, an issue of great concern within the international scientific debate. This item represents one of the main challenges related to a sustainable development, with particular concern to the public health control. While most of the work has been concentrated on their detection and the evaluation of their average level, little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of concentrations of these compounds in the effluent and its capability to affect the concentrations in time of the receiving water body. In this study, three sampling campaigns were carried out at two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Varese area (Northern Italy) with the aim of monitoring the occurrence of some pharmaceuticals to evaluate their removal efficiency. The detected pharmaceuticals were: Ofloxacin, Ibuprofen, Atenolol, Bezafibrate, Carbamazepine, Salbutamol, Cyclophosphamide and Hydrochlorothiazide. The results obtained, together with the analysis of the characteristics of the chemicals and of the two WWTPs, allowed evaluating the factors affecting the spatial and temporal concentration variability in effluent waters and the potential influence of this variability in driving the exposure of the aquatic ecosystems in the receiving water body. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic ecosystem exposure; sustainable development; removal efficiencies; spatial variability; temporal variability aquatic ecosystem exposure; sustainable development; removal efficiencies; spatial variability; temporal variability
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Morosini, C.; Marsoni, M.; Torretta, V.; Conti, F.; Ragazzi, M.; Rada, E.C.; Cioca, G. Factors Affecting Spatial and Temporal Concentration Variability of Pharmaceuticals: Comparison between Two WWTPs. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1466.

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