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Special Issue "Building Simulation and Resilience of Buildings to Extreme Weather Events"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ali Bahadori-Jahromi

School of Computing and Engineering, University Of West London
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Sustainable engineering; Building simulation; Building design; Building Engineering; Building envelope; Carbon dioxide (Co2)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue includes selected articles that contribute to existing knowledge on various aspect of building energy consumption, simulation, and enhancing the resilience of buildings to extreme weather events.

The 2015 COP21 Paris climate agreement highlights the increased global effort to reduce global Green House Gas (GHG) emissions to curb the adverse effect of climate change. The effects of global warming are complex and wide ranging which can include, increased flooding, rise in sea level, increased temperature, drought, etc. Consequently, reduction in building energy consumption is, therefore, important, as, globally, buildings account for almost half of the energy use in both developed and developing nations. Furthermore, the design of resilient buildings in light of the current threats of extreme weather events due to climate change have also become paramount.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect and present innovative research results, advancements and established methodologies directed towards improvement of building energy performance, occupants thermal comfort and design of extreme weather events resilience buildings. In this framework, this Special Issue aims at collecting contributions that include:

  • Improvement in building energy efficiency (domestic, non-domestic, public and other buildings).
  • Estimation and validation of energy consumption in new and existing buildings.
  • Strategies and technologies to improve building energy efficiency.
  • Renewable energy.
  • Heat recovery, cogeneration or tri-generation systems.
  • Building refurbishment and retrofitting.
  • Extreme weather events resilience buildings.
  • Building simulation modelling.

It is believed that this Special Issue can contribute to the global effort to improving energy efficiency in buildings in a sustainable manner, thereby helping to reduce the adverse effect of global climate change.

Dr Ali B-Jahromi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Building simulation
  • Energy efficiency
  • Energy consumption
  • Sustainability
  • Building retrofit
  • Resilient buildings

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Performance Analyses of Temporary Membrane Structures: Energy Saving and CO2 Reduction through Dynamic Simulations of Textile Envelopes
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072548 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this research, carried out in collaboration with Maco Technology Inc., was to analyse the energy performance of temporary textile structures that are often used to host itinerant events. This paper illustrates the dynamic simulations carried on the Ducati Pavilion, designed
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research, carried out in collaboration with Maco Technology Inc., was to analyse the energy performance of temporary textile structures that are often used to host itinerant events. This paper illustrates the dynamic simulations carried on the Ducati Pavilion, designed by Maco Technology, which hosted Ducati staff during the different stages of the Superbike World Championship. Specific aspects relating to the structural/constructive system of the project were also analysed. The theme of energy saving and carbon reduction is of great importance in temporary and itinerant structures and environmental sustainability in relation to the materials used, storage, re-use, mode of transport and ability to respond efficiently to the climatic conditions of the installation sites is an important aspect. The Ducati Pavilion was modelled and analysed from an energy point of view using Design Builder software. Ways of improving performance were analysed under summer conditions. The paper focuses on the importance of optimizing the performance of textile envelopes: the methodology proposed allows visible savings in terms of energy consumption and achieves good levels of environmental comfort in temporary buildings with low thermal mass structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Passive Ventilation for Indoor Comfort: A Comparison of Results from Monitoring and Simulation for a Historical Building in a Temperate Climate
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051565
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
When environmental sustainability is a key feature of an intervention on a building, the design must guarantee minimal impact and damage to the environment. The last ten years have seen a steady increase in the installation of highly efficient systems for winter heating,
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When environmental sustainability is a key feature of an intervention on a building, the design must guarantee minimal impact and damage to the environment. The last ten years have seen a steady increase in the installation of highly efficient systems for winter heating, but this trend has not been mirrored for summer cooling systems. Passive ventilation, however, is a means of summer air conditioning with a low financial and environmental impact. Natural ventilation methods such as “wind towers” have been used to achieve adequate levels of internal comfort in buildings. However, the application of these systems in old town centres, where buildings are often of great architectural value, is complex. This study started with the analysis of various ventilation chimneys in order to identify the most suitable system for temperate climes. Ventilation systems were then designed using static analysis of ventilation with specific software, and installed. The results were assessed and monitored using climatic sensors over the summer period, in order to establish the period of maximum functionality to optimize the system’s performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Designing Resilience of the Built Environment to Extreme Weather Events
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010141
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
Built environment comprises of a multitude of complex networks of buildings and processes in and between buildings. The paper looks at resilience design on three different levels: the building, the site, and the region. The building resilience design is studied using multi-objective optimization
[...] Read more.
Built environment comprises of a multitude of complex networks of buildings and processes in and between buildings. The paper looks at resilience design on three different levels: the building, the site, and the region. The building resilience design is studied using multi-objective optimization of a recently completed Passivhaus retrofit, under four different climate years: current, 2030, 2050, and 2080. The site resilience design is studied on the basis of a balance between incoming solar radiation and evaporative cooling from transpiration of plants to mitigate heat island effect. The regional resilience design is studied using a network model, taking into account connectivity, information capacity, and the ability to reconfigure. A common denominator found between these three aspects is a degree of system redundancy. Thus, a provision for adaptable building thermal insulation, a provision for adaptable green areas, and a provision for adaptable connectivity are the ingredients for resilient designs on these three respective levels. The findings increase our understanding of practical issues and implications for the resilience design of the built environment under extreme weather events. A combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches discussed in the paper provides practical guidance for designers and policy makers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Residential Area Building Layout on Outdoor Wind Environment at the Pedestrian Level in Severe Cold Regions of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122310
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a frequent occurrence of extremely cold conditions which has had a serious impact on the life of residents of buildings in various locations around the world. However, there have only been a very limited number of studies
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In recent years, there has been a frequent occurrence of extremely cold conditions which has had a serious impact on the life of residents of buildings in various locations around the world. However, there have only been a very limited number of studies on the effects of residential area building layout on the winter wind environments, which led to a lack of quantitative guidance for residential area planning in severely cold regions. This study aims to reveal the relationship between (1) the residential areas’ building density, floor area ratio, wind projection angle, average building height, and relative position of high-rise buildings, and; (2) the mean wind velocity ratio at pedestrian level in severe cold regions. In this study, the pedestrian-level outdoor wind environments in 24 typical residential areas of Harbin, China, are simulated using ENVI-met software. The results show that the relative position of high-rise buildings in multi-high-level mixed residential areas has little influence on the mean wind velocity ratio, and the maximum difference is 0.04. The factors of building layout have little influence on the mean wind velocity ratio of multistory residential areas. However, a significant linear correlation exists between the mean wind velocity ratio of high-rise residential areas and both the building density and wind projection angle. The prediction model of the mean pedestrian-level wind velocity ratio was then established. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Toolbox—Framework for the Development of a Tool for the Primary Design of Zero Emission Buildings in European and Asian Cities
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122244
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses the framework for the development of an Energy Toolbox (ETB). The aim of the ETB is to support the design of domestic Zero Emission Buildings (ZEBs), according to the concept of net zero-energy buildings during the early architectural design and
[...] Read more.
This paper discusses the framework for the development of an Energy Toolbox (ETB). The aim of the ETB is to support the design of domestic Zero Emission Buildings (ZEBs), according to the concept of net zero-energy buildings during the early architectural design and planning phases. The ETB concept is based on the calculation of the energy demand for heating, cooling, lighting, and appliances. Based on a building’s energy demand, technologies for the onsite conversion and production of the specific forms and quantities of final and primary energy by means of renewable energy carriers can be identified. The calculations of the ETB are based on the building envelope properties of a primary building design, as well as the physical and climate parameters required for the calculation of heat transfer coefficients, heat gains, and heat losses. The ETB enables the selection and rough dimensioning of technologies and systems to meet, and, wherever possible, reduce the thermal and electric energy demand of a building. The technologies included comprise green facades, adaptable dynamic lighting, shading devices, heat pumps, photovoltaic generators, solar thermal collectors, adiabatic cooling, and thermal storage. The ETB facilitates the balancing of the energy consumption and the production of renewable energies of a primary building design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Estimation and Visualization of CO2 Emissions for Campus Sustainability: The Case of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112124
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
A total of 21 metric tons of CO2 per person in terms of per capita emissions from consumption of energy was recorded in Saudi Arabia in 2011 and forecasts have shown that this emission of CO2 is increasing. This poses the
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A total of 21 metric tons of CO2 per person in terms of per capita emissions from consumption of energy was recorded in Saudi Arabia in 2011 and forecasts have shown that this emission of CO2 is increasing. This poses the threat of climate change and global warming and therefore the need for the sustainability of the country. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030 addresses environmental sustainability that includes a reduction in CO2 emissions as well as diversified economic growth. Universities have been regarded as institutions with significant responsibilities to resolve the issues of sustainability as well as serve as role model to society by implementing a sustainability plan. This study established a spatial evaluation, estimation, and visualization of the CO2 emissions of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. The data required for this study were collected from the overall coverage of the university campus buildings by transforming raster data from the satellite image to vector data in the form of polygons, and then multiplying the area by the number of floors of the individual building. ArcGIS 10.3® (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) software was used for this campus CO2 emissions evaluation and visualization. The overall estimate of the CO2 emissions for the university campus was 127.7-tons CO2 equivalent. The lowest emission was 0.02-tons CO2 equivalent while the maximum value was 20.9-tons of CO2 equivalent. By this ArcGIS-based evaluation, it is evident that geographically integrated model for campus estimation and visualization of CO2 emissions provides the information for decision makers to develop viable strategies for achieving a higher standard in overall campus sustainability and addressing the issue of climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Habitat Effect on Urban Roof Vegetation
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111985
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban growth has been fast for decades. Because money is very important in this urban-based world, humanity focuses on economic development, and is often too busy to deal with sustainability. Therefore, in a world that is constantly changing, creating sustainable cities that contain
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Urban growth has been fast for decades. Because money is very important in this urban-based world, humanity focuses on economic development, and is often too busy to deal with sustainability. Therefore, in a world that is constantly changing, creating sustainable cities that contain a diverse range of habitats supporting plant establishment is essential. Some surprising urban habitats in which plants can grow, such as cracks on pavements and walls, rocky areas, abandoned places and roofs might be extremely important for sustainability, while urban spaces are under artificial pressure. In this study, which suggesting a method to create more sustainable green roofs for urban areas, and considering roof vegetation is already important for supporting the ecology of urban areas, we surveyed 37 roofs in an urban part of Trabzon city focusing on the habitat effect. We found 51 plant species growing on these 37 roofs, and determined five different roof vegetation typologies in the research area. The main goal in any artificial green roof is to cover roof surfaces with vegetation, and success is considered a perfect coverage rate. We found roof surface size, species richness, size of the sunlit part, daily sunlight duration, and depth of the substrate are the most effective habitat attributes on vegetation coverage on rooftops in the research area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS) on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111950
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (35036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS) of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate), and provide answers to the following question: What effects
[...] Read more.
This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS) of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate), and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with other solutions such as on-site renewable energies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Transitional Space of Canopy in Schools in the UK
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101753
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
There has been a significant increase in opportunities to improve school environments in the UK. There has, however, been little study on the design of sheltered transitional spaces, despite growing architectural demand for this, examples of which can be easily found in most
[...] Read more.
There has been a significant increase in opportunities to improve school environments in the UK. There has, however, been little study on the design of sheltered transitional spaces, despite growing architectural demand for this, examples of which can be easily found in most primary schools in the UK. Computer simulations (Rayman, Ecotect and Winair4) were performed to identify the influence of different parameters: that of having a canopy; the effect of the transmissivity of the canopy material (three transparencies 0%, 50% and 90% were considered); orientation (four orientations—north, east, south and west—were considered); and location (three cities: London, Manchester and Glasgow). The combined effects of canopy transparency and orientation were shown to be critical design considerations in affecting comfort conditions in outdoor spaces. It was found that outdoor comfort conditions in the transitional space can be enhanced by 41.5% in August by choosing a canopy of 0% transparency, compared with a canopy of 90% transparency in London. The fixed canopy with a higher transparency helped to increase outdoor thermal comfort in Glasgow, while one with a lower transparency showed better performance during summer in London. This research will help design environmentally sophisticated transitional spaces in schools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimation and Validation of Energy Consumption in UK Existing Hotel Building Using Dynamic Simulation Software
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081391
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adverse effects of anthropogenic climate change has resulted in mitigation strategies geared towards curbing CO2 emissions. Consequently, this has increased demand for more energy efficient buildings. Considerable amounts of studies have shown the existence of a significant discrepancy between estimated energy consumption
[...] Read more.
Adverse effects of anthropogenic climate change has resulted in mitigation strategies geared towards curbing CO2 emissions. Consequently, this has increased demand for more energy efficient buildings. Considerable amounts of studies have shown the existence of a significant discrepancy between estimated energy consumption by thermal simulation software and actual building operational energy; this is referred to as a ‘performance gap’. This work presents a method of improving the energy consumption estimate in an existing non-domestic building via the use of a case study UK hotel (Hilton Reading Hotel) and Engineering Development Solutions limited (EDSL) TAS thermal simulation software. The method involves evaluating consumption estimates through plant modelling, and modifying this result by surveying the site to verify the simulation data and including estimates of unaccounted building energy use such as catering services which can be significant in hotels. The energy consumption result for this case study building gives an estimate which is within 12% of the actual building consumption data. The result also demonstrated that such models can produce energy consumption estimates that are up to 23% more accurate than building regulation compliance models and that more accurate simulation consumption estimates can be achieved by accounting for more unregulated energy uses, for example, lifts, servers and small power load. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on Dynamic Response of Novel Masonry Structures Impacted by Debris Flow
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071122
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Debris flow is a very destructive natural disaster. This paper presents a novel masonry structure with strong resistance to debris flow—by using walls that are set with braces and filled with straw bricks. This structure was designed according to the concepts of sustainability.
[...] Read more.
Debris flow is a very destructive natural disaster. This paper presents a novel masonry structure with strong resistance to debris flow—by using walls that are set with braces and filled with straw bricks. This structure was designed according to the concepts of sustainability. In order to study the dynamic response of this novel masonry structure under debris flow, finite element models of different masonry structures were established by means of LS-DYNA software. The responses of this novel structure and other traditional structures were calculated and compared when the rock of debris flow hits the center of the wall. Results showed that the out-of-plane stiffness of the impacted wall with cross braces was enhanced in this novel structure, leading to an increased resistance to the impact of debris flow more effectively. Furthermore, braces were able to stop rocks in the debris flow and dissipate the corresponding energy through deformation. These braces also improved anti-collapse capabilities, leading to an increase in the safety of people’s lives and properties. This novel structure is a response to national policies and plans, which plays an active role in promoting sustainable development of society. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Impact of Window Films on the Overall Energy Consumption of Existing UK Hotel Buildings
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050731
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, considerable attention has justifiably been directed towards energy savings in buildings as they account for up to 20–40% of total energy consumption in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, studies have revealed that buildings’ CO2 emissions for account for at least
[...] Read more.
Recently, considerable attention has justifiably been directed towards energy savings in buildings as they account for up to 20–40% of total energy consumption in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, studies have revealed that buildings’ CO2 emissions for account for at least 43% of total emissions. Window panels are a major component of the building fabric with considerable influence on the façade energy performance and are accountable for up to 60% of a building’s overall energy loss. Therefore, the thermal performance of glazing materials is an important issue within the built environment. This work evaluates the impact of solar window films on the overall energy consumption of an existing commercial building via the use of a case study U.K. hotel and TAS dynamic simulation software. The study results demonstrated that the impact of window films on the overall energy consumption of the case study hotel is approximately 2%. However, an evaluation of various overall energy consumption components showed that the window films reduce the annual total cooling energy consumption by up to 35% along with a marginal 2% increase in the annual total heating energy consumption. They can also provide overall cost and CO2 emissions savings of up to 3%. Full article
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