Special Issue "Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions"

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A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Witold-Roger Poganietz

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
E-Mail
Fax: +49 721 608 26715
Interests: techno-economic assessment of renewable energy carriers; biomass resources; land use changes; carbon management; material flow analysis; life cycle assessment; energy systems analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reliable access to energy is an essential pre-requisite for any suitable living standard. A globally growing population, worldwide increasing claims for improving living-standards and undesirable environmental impacts of winning, converting and using conventional energy sources, increase the pressure for identifying alternative energy sources. But, alternative ways and means to diminish environmental and societal impacts of conventional energy sources are also required. However, just substituting fossil and nuclear energy carriers by renewables will not be enough to meet the challenges, if the “type” of problem is simply substituted by another one, e.g., squeezing out primeval forest instead of global warming by fossil energy carriers. Perhaps increased use of secondary resources, like biogenic residuals and wastes, or an increased involvement of citizens or small communities to provide energy could be the right step to overcome the challenges.
Articles which discuss new concepts for dealing with the abovementioned challenges are cordially invited. The concepts could present sustainable technological approaches, but social and economic innovations, like an aligned market design, stimulating the use of alternative energy sources in a sustainable way are also highly appreciated. The geographical focus should be on developing regions, but articles considering developed regions are also welcomed.

Dr. Witold-Roger Poganietz
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • alternative energy sources
  • technological innovations
  • social innovations
  • market design
  • developing regions
  • developed regions
  • environment
  • secondary resources
  • sustainability

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of Energy Usage and Energy Efficiency Behavior in Low- and High-Income Households: The Case of Kitwe, Zambia
Resources 2015, 4(4), 871-902; doi:10.3390/resources4040871
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
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Abstract
Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however,
[...] Read more.
Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however, the need to adopt energy efficiency measures has not just been driven by the imperative to mitigate the negative effects of climate change but also by a critical shortage of energy. This research looks at households’ energy consumption behavior in low- and high-income areas of Kitwe. Recent studies on the relationship between household energy consumption and behavioral lifestyle have been descriptive, with limited emphasis on the relationships between various variables. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to investigate relationships between the two income groups and various energy consumption-related variables such as knowledge about energy reduction measures, energy saving strategies, barriers to the use of energy saving strategies, and the motives for using energy reduction strategies. Methodologically, the study was largely quantitative in nature, with questionnaires administered to a combined total of 56 households. However, key interviews were also conducted that helped us to get a clearer understanding of some of the issues covered in the research. Key findings are that whereas the descriptive statistics show that there are behavioral differences between the two income groups, the inferential statistics show that there is no relationship between income level and the energy efficiency variables. This has been found to be consistent with results from studies done elsewhere. The key lesson is that there is low usage of energy efficiency measures in both low- and high-income areas and that the authorities need to change the way information is disseminated to consumers from the current method of advertising to social diffusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle An Approach to the Integrated Design of PCM-Air Heat Exchangers Based on Numerical Simulation: A Solar Cooling Case Study
Resources 2015, 4(4), 796-818; doi:10.3390/resources4040796
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
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Abstract
A novel technique of design of experiments applied to numerical simulations is proposed in this paper as a methodology for the sizing and design of thermal storage equipment integrated in any specific application. The technique is carried out through the response surfaces in
[...] Read more.
A novel technique of design of experiments applied to numerical simulations is proposed in this paper as a methodology for the sizing and design of thermal storage equipment integrated in any specific application. The technique is carried out through the response surfaces in order to limit the number of simulation runs required to achieve an appropriate solution. Thus, there are significant savings on the time spent on the design as well as a potential cost saving on the experimentation if similarity relationships between the prototype and the model are met. The technique is applied here to a previously developed and validated numerical model that simulates the thermal behavior of a phase change material-air heat exchanger. The incorporation of the thermal energy storage unit is analyzed in the case of a solar cooling application, improving the system coefficient of performance. The economic viability is mainly conditioned by the price of the macroencapsulated phase change material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Taylor Law in Wind Energy Data
Resources 2015, 4(4), 787-795; doi:10.3390/resources4040787
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Taylor power law (or temporal fluctuation scaling), is a scaling relationship of the form σ ~  (P)λ where !! is the standard deviation and hPi the mean value of a sample of a time series has been observed for power output
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The Taylor power law (or temporal fluctuation scaling), is a scaling relationship of the form σ ~  (P)λ where !! is the standard deviation and hPi the mean value of a sample of a time series has been observed for power output data sampled at 5 min and 1 s and from five wind farms and a single wind turbine, located at different places. Furthermore, an analogy with the turbulence field is performed, consequently allowing the establishment of a scaling relationship between the turbulent production IP and the mean value (P). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea
Resources 2015, 4(4), 751-764; doi:10.3390/resources4040751
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
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Abstract
The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development
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The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since 1989, the Korea Electric Power Corporation has built a well-known test site for the application of renewable energy resources, including 500 kW photovoltaic systems with smooth integration into power grids in the Gochang area. The main objects of this study are (1) to review the recent trends in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy, hydroelectric, and tidal power, for electric power generation developed in Korea and (2) to introduce the test sites in Korea. For this purpose, this study examines the current activities of industry and government in Korea and compares them with global trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Reflectivity and Cloud Cover on the Optimal TiltAngle of Solar Panels
Resources 2015, 4(4), 736-750; doi:10.3390/resources4040736
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
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Abstract
Determining the optimum angle for a solar panel is important if tracking systems are not used and a tilt angle remains constant. This article determines the sensitivity of the optimum angle to surface reflectivity at different latitudes using a mathematical model that accounts
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Determining the optimum angle for a solar panel is important if tracking systems are not used and a tilt angle remains constant. This article determines the sensitivity of the optimum angle to surface reflectivity at different latitudes using a mathematical model that accounts for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. A quadratic correlation is also developed to compute the optimal angle and maximum energy as a function of latitude and reflectivity. We also seek to determine how sensitive the optimal tilt angle is to cloud cover using the 35° latitude of the Prosperity solar facility in Albuquerque, NM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Modeling and Analysis of a Low-Voltage DC Distribution System
Resources 2015, 4(3), 713-735; doi:10.3390/resources4030713
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 25 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract
It is well known that the Low-Voltage DC (LVDC) distribution system is a promising topology as a future smart distribution system due to its high efficiency and reliability. However, there are still some challenges in the construction and implementation of an LVDC system.
[...] Read more.
It is well known that the Low-Voltage DC (LVDC) distribution system is a promising topology as a future smart distribution system due to its high efficiency and reliability. However, there are still some challenges in the construction and implementation of an LVDC system. For practical application of the LVDC system, therefore, it is necessary to perform any simulation in advance by considering various conditions that can occur in an LVDC system. In order to provide a foundation for analyzing a DC system, this paper presents an LVDC distribution system model including essential components such as power electronic devices, Distributed Energy Resource (DER), and Energy Storage System (ESS), which can be considered for implementation in an LVDC system using Electro-Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP) software. Moreover, an analysis of the characteristic in both the steady state and the transient state is conducted in an LVDC distribution system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System
Resources 2015, 4(3), 692-712; doi:10.3390/resources4030692
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator) system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator) system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle An Innovative Device to Convert Olive Mill Wastewater into a Suitable Effluent for Feeding Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria
Resources 2015, 4(3), 621-636; doi:10.3390/resources4030621
Received: 6 June 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
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Abstract
A device (prototype) with a working volume of 200 L was used to deplete olive mill wastewater (OMW) of polyphenols. The OMW transformed into feedstock by means of the device was then used for feeding a lab-scale photobioreactor, just for testing the production
[...] Read more.
A device (prototype) with a working volume of 200 L was used to deplete olive mill wastewater (OMW) of polyphenols. The OMW transformed into feedstock by means of the device was then used for feeding a lab-scale photobioreactor, just for testing the production of bioH2. The main novelty of this prototype consists in the combination of several adsorbent matrices and the exploitation of their synergic action. In this investigation, three matrices have been used: active carbon, Azolla and zeolite. The device was operated at an olive oil company located in the heart of the Chianti zone (Province of Florence, Italy). The efficiency of polyphenol removal obtained using the device was ≥96%. The multi-matrix effluent (MMeff) generated was then used to obtain three different culture broths containing 25%, 50% and 100% of MMeff, respectively. The diluted (with water) culture broths were suitable for hydrogen generation, with the highest hydrogen production rate (12.7 mL H2/Lculture/h) being obtained using 50% MMeff. The hydrogen yields were: 334 mL H2/L of MMeff, when feeding the photofermenter with pure effluent (100%); 1308 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the half-diluted effluent (50%, v/v); and 432 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the highest-diluted effluent (25%, v/v). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
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Open AccessArticle Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case
Resources 2015, 4(3), 524-547; doi:10.3390/resources4030524
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
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Abstract
Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required
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Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield) is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle From Goals to Action: The Efforts for Increasing Energy Efficiency and Integration of Renewable Sources in Eskilstuna, Sweden
Resources 2015, 4(3), 548-565; doi:10.3390/resources4030548
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use
[...] Read more.
Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources in the areas of transportation, buildings and consumers’ awareness, as stated in the Climate action plan, for the municipality of Eskilstuna, Sweden. The efforts of the municipality to successfully reach their energy efficiency goals, are described in this paper including future perspectives. The results show that although the municipality counts with the advantage of owning and working together with the local housing company and energy provider, in order to reach the established goals, additional strategies need to be considered. For an increased use of renewable energy sources, analysis of rooftops suitable for photovoltaic (PV) installation should be carried out as well as the integration of goals for self-consumption. In the transport field, the city needs to prepare for large-scale electric vehicle (EV) market penetration and to consider different bike or car sharing options. Finally, more specific awareness campaigns are needed to engage the citizens in reducing their energy consumption and living a more sustainable life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Short Time Period of Operation of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers
Resources 2015, 4(3), 507-523; doi:10.3390/resources4030507
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
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Abstract
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems have been proven to have higher efficiency compared to conventional air source heat pump systems for space heating and cooling applications. While vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE) are favorable in GSHP installation, this type of configuration requires
[...] Read more.
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems have been proven to have higher efficiency compared to conventional air source heat pump systems for space heating and cooling applications. While vertical ground heat exchangers (GHE) are favorable in GSHP installation, this type of configuration requires higher capital costs as opposed to horizontal configuration. Numerical simulation has been used to accurately predict the thermal performance of GHE. In this paper, numerical analysis of thermal performance for slinky horizontal GHE loops in different orientations and operation modes is discussed. It was found that the loop orientation is not so important due to the little effect it has on thermal performance. While the mean heat exchange rate of copper loop increases 48% compared to HDPE loop, the analysis supports the common claim that heat exchange rate is predominantly limited by the thermal conductivity of the ground. With the same amount of circulation work, the mean heat exchange rate increases by 83%–162% when operated in parallel loops operations. The performance in these operations can be further optimized to 10%–14% increase when spacing between adjacent loops was provided. The spacing helps to minimize interference of heat flow that would penalize the overall thermal performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
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Open AccessArticle Renewable Energy Development in Small Island Developing States of the Pacific
Resources 2015, 4(3), 490-506; doi:10.3390/resources4030490
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 8 July 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given
[...] Read more.
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific over the last decade have established some of the most ambitious renewable energy targets in the world. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, given the adverse economic impacts of high oil prices on these countries. Efforts to attract development assistance and to strengthen the position of Pacific SIDS in climate change negotiations have likely also played a role. This paper explores the development of renewable energy resources in the Pacific through a public policy lens. The ambitious renewable energy targets established by Pacific SIDS are argued to be appropriate in some cases, but in other cases are criticised on economic grounds. A potential trade-off is identified between the risk mitigation benefits and poverty alleviation benefits of different renewable technology investments, with questions raised about whether support for the former rather than the latter by development partners is appropriate. A number of institutional and financial challenges to the development of renewable energy resources in Pacific SIDS are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment
Resources 2015, 4(2), 412-433; doi:10.3390/resources4020412
Received: 4 April 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
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Abstract
This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned
[...] Read more.
This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU) continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe
Resources 2015, 4(2), 398-411; doi:10.3390/resources4020398
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially) green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance
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Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially) green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydrogen from steam methane reforming. Glycerol as a by-product from the production of rapeseed biodiesel and bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of poplar biomass are considered. The processing plants are simulated in Aspen Plus® to provide inventory data for the life cycle assessment. The environmental impact potentials evaluated include abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, land competition, acidification and eutrophication. Furthermore, the cumulative (total and non-renewable) energy demand is calculated, as well as the corresponding renewability scores and life-cycle energy balances and efficiencies of the biohydrogen products. In addition to quantitative evidence of the (expected) relevance of the feedstock and impact categories considered, results show that poplar-derived bio-oil could be a suitable feedstock for steam reforming, in contrast to first-generation bioglycerol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Frameworks for Understanding and Promoting Solar Energy Technology Development
Resources 2015, 4(1), 55-69; doi:10.3390/resources4010055
Received: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2015 / Published: 11 February 2015
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Abstract
In this paper, the contrasting theories of metabolic rift and ecological modernization theory (EMT) are applied to the same empirical phenomenon. Metabolic rift argues that the natural metabolic relationship between humans and nature has been fractured through modernization, industrialization and urbanization. EMT, in
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In this paper, the contrasting theories of metabolic rift and ecological modernization theory (EMT) are applied to the same empirical phenomenon. Metabolic rift argues that the natural metabolic relationship between humans and nature has been fractured through modernization, industrialization and urbanization. EMT, in contrast, argues that societies in an advanced state of industrialization adopt ecologically benign production technologies and political policies, suggesting that modern societies could be on course to alleviate the ecological damage caused by capitalism. These two theories are fundamentally different in their assumptions about modern economies and technologies, yet both can be used as a theoretical lens to examine the phenomenon of solar energy technology adoption. Furthermore, both theories shed light on the increasing adoption of solar energy technologies in both “developing” and “developed” regions and the potential social conditions for promoting renewable energy technology adoption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle The Economics of Mitigation of Water Pollution Externalities from Biomass Production for Energy
Resources 2014, 3(4), 721-733; doi:10.3390/resources3040721
Received: 21 October 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To fulfill the national bioenergy goals of the United States, conversion of marginal lands to intensive biomass crop production and/or application of greater amounts of nutrients to existing cropland could be expected. Such change in agricultural practices could produce unintended environmental consequences such
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To fulfill the national bioenergy goals of the United States, conversion of marginal lands to intensive biomass crop production and/or application of greater amounts of nutrients to existing cropland could be expected. Such change in agricultural practices could produce unintended environmental consequences such as water quality degradation. Select Best Management Practices (BMPs) are evaluated for water quality mitigation effectiveness as well as for their relative cost-effectiveness, issues that are often ignored in evaluation of biofuels as a sustainable solution for energy demand. The water quality impacts of converting pastureland to intensive biomass production for biofuel, evaluated using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), indicate significant increases in erosion and nutrient loadings to water bodies. Hydrologic and economic evaluation of the BMPs indicate their implementation produced effective water pollution mitigation but at substantial costs, accentuating the sustainability issue related to the economics of renewable fuels. U.S. national energy policy designed around achieving energy independence should also consider environmental and economic trade-offs for biofuels to be an economically and environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)
Open AccessArticle Subject Knowledge and Perceptions of Bioenergy among School Teachers in India: Results from a Survey
Resources 2014, 3(4), 599-613; doi:10.3390/resources3040599
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy, and their motivation to teach such a topic, can largely determine the success of implementing bioenergy related education in schools. The study aimed to explore science teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy in India. A questionnaire-based survey
[...] Read more.
Teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy, and their motivation to teach such a topic, can largely determine the success of implementing bioenergy related education in schools. The study aimed to explore science teachers’ knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy in India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 28 science teachers from four urban schools in India. Results indicated that the science teachers were fairly knowledgeable regarding bioenergy and they also demonstrated positive perceptions of bioenergy. In addition, they were positive towards the prospect of receiving more information to increase their own knowledge of bioenergy. However, the science teachers appeared to have some misconceptions regarding the issue of CO2 emission from using bioenergy. It also emerged that although the existing Science syllabus for Grade X in Indian schools includes a topic on bioenergy, the majority of the science teachers were not aware of it. Policy makers and educators are recommended to provide science teachers more support to improve their capacity for teaching energy and environmental topics in schools in India. In addition, an improvement of the current learning and teaching environment in Indian schools could help teachers to deliver energy and environmental education more effectively to their students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)

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Jump to: Research

Open AccessConcept Paper The Influence of Diesel Fuel Subsidies and Taxes on the Potential for Solar-Powered Hybrid Systems in Africa
Resources 2015, 4(3), 673-691; doi:10.3390/resources4030673
Received: 6 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 31 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources
[...] Read more.
Many people in African countries lack access to sufficient electricity supply due to missing infrastructure of the centralized conventional power generation system. In order to provide electricity to a wider part of the population, it is necessary to exploit the vast renewable resources in African countries. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the economic advantages of photovoltaic-based hybrid systems over fossil fuel-based power generation. A simulation model is applied in order to calculate the cost advantage of hybrid systems compared to diesel-only systems for the entire continent on a long term basis by applying two scenarios: one based on world market diesel prices and the other one based on national diesel prices. The results indicate that average power generation costs per country can be reduced by up to 0.11 €/kWh considering world market diesel prices and by up to 0.48 €/kWh considering national diesel prices. Furthermore, the effect of diesel fuel subsidies and taxes on the renewable energy potential and the respective savings are examined. These findings may ameliorate the policy development according to fossil fuel subsidies and taxes and demonstrate the advantages of decentralized renewable hybrid systems especially in rural areas of Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Energy Sources in Developing and Developed Regions)

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