Special Issue "Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism in Canada: The Current Landscape"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Neal M. Davies

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, MS 2-35F 8613-114 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada
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Fax: +1 509 335 5902
Interests: pharmacokinetics; chirality; drug interactions; formulation and drug delivery
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kishor M. Wasan

1. College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, E3122-104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
2.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
3. Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University to Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada (effective July 1st 2019)
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Interests: pharmaceutics; drug delivery; formulation, drug development, translational pharmacotherapy, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, pharmacokinetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Canadian Pharmaceutical Scientists have a rich history of ground-breaking research in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism undertaken throughout its Pharmacy and Medical Schools and within the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The principle of drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) is the foundational basis of rationale drug-design, and pharmacotherapy. The study of ADME and its descriptive quantitative analysis is the basis of pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics is fundamental in the development of a new chemical entity into a marketable product and is essential in understanding the bioavailability, bioequivalence and biosimilarities of drugs. Pharmacokinetics and drug development studies facilitate an understanding of organ-based functionality. Population pharmacokinetic variability and the modeling of drug concentrations has significant utility in translating individual response in a target patient population.

This special issue serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress and current landscape of pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism within the prevailing Canadian context. We invite articles on all aspects of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism studies highlighting the world-class research currently undertaken in Canada for this special issue.

Prof. Dean, Dr. Neal M. Davies
Prof. Dean, Dr. Kishor M. Wasan
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism in Canada: The Current Landscape—A Summary of This Indispensable Special Issue
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10010013
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Canadian Pharmaceutical Scientists have a rich history of groundbreaking research in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism undertaken primarily throughout its Pharmacy Faculties and within the Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology industry.[...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Absolute Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Monohydrate in Rats: Debunking a Myth
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10010031
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract
Creatine is an ergogenic compound used by athletes to enhance performance. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CM) has been suggested for musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Until now, little is known about its pharmacokinetic profile. Our objective was to determine the oral bioavailability of CM
[...] Read more.
Creatine is an ergogenic compound used by athletes to enhance performance. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CM) has been suggested for musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Until now, little is known about its pharmacokinetic profile. Our objective was to determine the oral bioavailability of CM and the influence of dose on oral absorption. Rats were dosed orally with low dose (10 mg/kg) or high dose (70 mg/kg) 13C-labeled CM. Blood samples were removed at various time points. Muscle and brain tissue were collected at the conclusion of the study. Plasma and tissue levels of 13C-labeled creatine were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of CM were built using GastroPlus™. These models were used to predict the plasma concentration–time profiles of creatine hydrochloride (CHCL), which has improved aqueous solubility compared to CM. Absolute oral bioavailability for low dose CM was 53% while high dose CM was only 16%. The simulated Cmax of 70 mg/kg CHCL was around 35 μg/mL compared to 14 μg/mL for CM with a predicted oral bioavailability of 66% with CHCL compared to 17% with CM. Our results suggest that the oral bioavailability of CM is less than complete and subject to dose and that further examination of improved dosage formulations of creatine is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis: Preclinical Study of Pharmacokinetics after Sublingual Administration of Taste-Masked Tablets for Potential Pediatric Use
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10010024
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Epinephrine is a life-saving treatment in anaphylaxis. In community settings, a first-aid dose of epinephrine is injected from an auto-injector (EAI). Needle phobia highly contributes to EAI underuse, leading to fatalities—especially in children. A novel rapidly-disintegrating sublingual tablet (RDST) of epinephrine was developed
[...] Read more.
Epinephrine is a life-saving treatment in anaphylaxis. In community settings, a first-aid dose of epinephrine is injected from an auto-injector (EAI). Needle phobia highly contributes to EAI underuse, leading to fatalities—especially in children. A novel rapidly-disintegrating sublingual tablet (RDST) of epinephrine was developed in our laboratory as a potential alternative dosage form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sublingual bioavailability of epinephrine 30 mg as a potential pediatric dose incorporated in our novel taste-masked RDST in comparison with intramuscular (IM) epinephrine 0.15 mg from EAI, the recommended and only available dosage form for children in community settings. We studied the rate and extent of epinephrine absorption in our validated rabbit model (n = 5) using a cross-over design. The positive control was IM epinephrine 0.15 mg from an EpiPen Jr®. The negative control was a placebo RDST. Tablets were placed under the tongue for 2 min. Blood samples were collected at frequent intervals and epinephrine concentrations were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. The mean ± SEM maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 16.7 ± 1.9 ng/mL at peak time (Tmax) of 21 min after sublingual epinephrine 30 mg did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from the Cmax of 18.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL at a Tmax of 36 min after IM epinephrine 0.15 mg. The Cmax of both doses was significantly higher than the Cmax of 7.5 ± 1.7 ng/mL of endogenous epinephrine after placebo. These taste-masked RDSTs containing a 30 mg dose of epinephrine have the potential to be used as an easy-to-carry, palatable, non-invasive treatment for anaphylactic episodes for children in community settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Regulation of Hepatic UGT2B15 by Methylation in Adults of Asian Descent
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10010006
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
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Abstract
The hepatic uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) are critical for detoxifying endo- and xenobiotics. Since UGTs are also dynamically responsive to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, we examined whether epigenetic DNA methylation can regulate hepatic UGT expression and differential effects of ethnicity, obesity, and sex.
[...] Read more.
The hepatic uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) are critical for detoxifying endo- and xenobiotics. Since UGTs are also dynamically responsive to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, we examined whether epigenetic DNA methylation can regulate hepatic UGT expression and differential effects of ethnicity, obesity, and sex. The methylation status of UGT isoforms was determined with Illumina Methylation 450 BeadChip arrays, with genotyping confirmed by sequencing and gene expression confirmed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). The UGT1A3 mRNA was 2-fold higher in females than males (p < 0.05), while UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 mRNA were significantly higher in Pacific Islanders than Caucasians (both p < 0.05). Differential mRNA or methylation did not occur with obesity. The methylation of the UGT2B15 locus cg09189601 in Caucasians was significantly lower than the highly methylated locus in Asians (p < 0.001). Three intergenic loci between UGT2B15 and 2B17 (cg07973162, cg10632656, and cg07952421) showed higher rates of methylation in Caucasians than in Asians (p < 0.001). Levels of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 mRNA were significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Genotyping and sequencing indicated that only UGT2B15 is regulated by methylation, and low UGT2B17 mRNA is due to a deletion genotype common to Asians. Epigenetic regulation of UGT2B15 may predispose Asians to altered drug and hormone metabolism and begin to explain the increased risks for adverse drug reactions and some cancers in this population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Assay Method for the Determination of Lidocaine in Human Serum
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040052
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Here we report on the development of a selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of lidocaine in human serum. The extraction of lidocaine and procainamide (internal standard) from serum (0.25 mL) was achieved using diethyl ether under alkaline conditions.
[...] Read more.
Here we report on the development of a selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of lidocaine in human serum. The extraction of lidocaine and procainamide (internal standard) from serum (0.25 mL) was achieved using diethyl ether under alkaline conditions. After liquid–liquid extraction, the separation of analytes was accomplished using reverse phase extraction. The mobile phase, a combination of acetonitrile and monobasic potassium phosphate, was pumped isocratically through a C18 analytical column. The ultraviolet (UV) wavelength was at 277 nm for the internal standard, and subsequently changed to 210 for lidocaine. The assay exhibited excellent linearity (r2 > 0.999) in peak response over the concentration ranges of 50–5000 ng/mL lidocaine HCl in human serum. The mean absolute recoveries for 50 and 1000 ng/mL lidocaine HCl in serum using the present extraction procedure were 93.9 and 80.42%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation in the serum were <15% at the lowest, and <12% at other concentrations, and the percent error values were less than 9%. The method displayed a high caliber of sensitivity and selectivity for monitoring therapeutic concentrations of lidocaine in human serum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Phase I Metabolism of CRV431, a Novel Oral Drug Candidate for Chronic Hepatitis B
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040051
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
The cytochrome P450-mediated Phase I in vitro metabolism of CRV431 was studied using selective chemical inhibition and recombinant human enzymes. Additionally, the metabolic profile of CRV431 in human, rat, and monkey liver microsomes was investigated. Liver microsomes were incubated for 0–80 min with
[...] Read more.
The cytochrome P450-mediated Phase I in vitro metabolism of CRV431 was studied using selective chemical inhibition and recombinant human enzymes. Additionally, the metabolic profile of CRV431 in human, rat, and monkey liver microsomes was investigated. Liver microsomes were incubated for 0–80 min with CRV431, and the metabolite profile was assessed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI-LCMS). CRV431 was extensively metabolized through oxidation to produce various hydroxylated and demethylated species. Species identified included monohydroxylated CRV431 (two distinct products), dihydroxylated CRV431, demethylated CRV431 (two distinct products), demethylated and hydroxylated CRV431 (two distinct products), didemethylated and hydroxylated CRV431, and didemethylated and dihydroxylated CRV431. The magnitude of metabolism was greatest in monkey, followed by human, followed by rat. Importantly, all of the species identified in human microsomes were correspondingly identified in monkey and/or rat microsomes. Human liver microsome studies using selective chemical inhibition, as well as studies using recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes, revealed that the major enzymes involved are cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5. Enzymes 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 are not involved in the in vitro metabolism of CRV431. This information will be useful for the further development of CRV431 both preclinically and clinically. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Role of PXR Genotype and Transporter Expression in the Placental Transport of Lopinavir in Mice
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040049
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Lopinavir (LPV), an antiretroviral protease inhibitor frequently prescribed in HIV-positive pregnancies, is a substrate of Abcb1 and Abcc2. As differences in placental expression of these transporters were seen in Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) −/− mice, we examined the impact of placental transporter expression
[...] Read more.
Lopinavir (LPV), an antiretroviral protease inhibitor frequently prescribed in HIV-positive pregnancies, is a substrate of Abcb1 and Abcc2. As differences in placental expression of these transporters were seen in Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) −/− mice, we examined the impact of placental transporter expression and fetal PXR genotype on the fetal accumulation of LPV. PXR +/− dams bearing PXR +/+, PXR +/−, and PXR −/− fetuses were generated by mating PXR +/− female mice with PXR +/− males. On gestational day 17, dams were administered 10 mg/kg LPV (i.v.) and sacrificed 30 min post injection. Concentrations of LPV in maternal plasma and fetal tissue were measured by LC-MS/MS, and transporter expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. As compared to the PXR +/+ fetal units, placental expression of Abcb1a, Abcc2, and Abcg2 mRNA were two- to three-fold higher in PXR −/− fetuses (p < 0.05). Two-fold higher fetal:maternal LPV concentration ratios were also seen in the PXR +/+ as compared to the PXR −/− fetuses (p < 0.05), and this significantly correlated to the placental expression of Abcb1a (r = 0.495; p < 0.005). Individual differences in the expression of placental transporters due to genetic or environmental factors can impact fetal exposure to their substrates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Body Weight Metrics for Effective and Cost-Efficient Conventional Factor VIII Dosing in Hemophilia A Prophylaxis
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040047
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization.
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The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization. We explored different weight metrics including lean body weight, ideal body weight, and adjusted body weight to determine an alternative dosing strategy that is both safe and resource-efficient in normal and overweight/obese adult patients. Using a validated population pharmacokinetic model, we simulated a variety of dosing regimens using different doses, weight metrics, and frequencies; we also investigated the implications of assuming various levels of endogenous factor production. Ideal body weight performed the best across all of the regimens explored, maintaining safety while moderating resource consumption for overweight and obese patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Disposition, Metabolism and Histone Deacetylase and Acetyltransferase Inhibition Activity of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Other Curcuminoids
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040045
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), curcumin and calebin-A are curcuminoids found in turmeric (Curcuma longa). Curcuminoids have been established to have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used as natural health supplements. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolism, excretion,
[...] Read more.
Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), curcumin and calebin-A are curcuminoids found in turmeric (Curcuma longa). Curcuminoids have been established to have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used as natural health supplements. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolism, excretion, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of these curcuminoids and to determine disposition of THC in rats after oral administration. We developed a UHPLC–MS/MS assay for THC in rat serum and urine. THC shows multiple redistribution phases with corresponding increases in urinary excretion rate. In-vitro antioxidant activity, histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and anti-inflammatory inhibitory activity were examined using commercial assay kits. Anticancer activity was determined in Sup-T1 lymphoma cells. Our results indicate THC was poorly absorbed after oral administration and primarily excreted via non-renal routes. All curcuminoids exhibited multiple pharmacological effects in vitro, including potent antioxidant activity as well as inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and lipoxygenase activity without affecting the release of TNF-α. Unlike curcumin and calebin-A, THC did not inhibit HDAC1 and PCAF and displayed a weaker growth inhibition activity against Sup-T1 cells. We show evidence for the first time that curcumin and calebin-A inhibit HAT and PCAF, possibly through a Michael-addition mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Altered Protein Expression of Cardiac CYP2J and Hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes—A Link in the Onset and Development of Cardiovascular Disease?
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040044
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic). Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse
[...] Read more.
Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic). Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse model of Type II diabetes (C57BLKS/J-db/db) was used. After sacrifice, livers and hearts were collected, washed, and snap frozen. Total proteins were extracted. Western blots were performed to assess cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4F protein expression, respectively. Significant decreases in relative protein expression of cardiac CYP2J and hepatic CYP2C were observed in Type II diabetes animals compared to controls (CYP2J: 0.80 ± 0.03 vs. 1.05 ± 0.06, n = 20, p < 0.001); (CYP2C: 1.56 ± 0.17 vs. 2.21 ± 0.19, n = 19, p < 0.01). In contrast, significant increases in relative protein expression of both hepatic CYP4A and CYP4F were noted in Type II diabetes mice compared to controls (CYP4A: 1.06 ± 0.09 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, n = 19, p < 0.001); (CYP4F: 2.53 ± 0.22 vs. 1.10 ± 0.07, n = 19, p < 0.001). These alterations induced by Type II diabetes in the endogenous pathway (CYP450) of arachidonic acid metabolism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease by disrupting the fine equilibrium between cardioprotective (CYP2J/CYP2C-generated) and cardiotoxic (CYP4A/CYP4F-generated) metabolites of arachidonic acid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of Statin- and Loratadine-Induced Muscle Pain Mechanisms Using Human Skeletal Muscle Cells
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040042
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Many drugs can cause unexpected muscle disorders, often necessitating the cessation of an effective medication. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) may potentially lead to perturbation of l-lactic acid homeostasis and muscular toxicity. Previous studies have shown that statins and loratadine have the
[...] Read more.
Many drugs can cause unexpected muscle disorders, often necessitating the cessation of an effective medication. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) may potentially lead to perturbation of l-lactic acid homeostasis and muscular toxicity. Previous studies have shown that statins and loratadine have the potential to inhibit l-lactic acid efflux by MCTs (MCT1 and 4). The main objective of this study was to confirm the inhibitory potentials of atorvastatin, simvastatin (acid and lactone forms), rosuvastatin, and loratadine on l-lactic acid transport using primary human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC). Loratadine (IC50 31 and 15 µM) and atorvastatin (IC50 ~130 and 210 µM) demonstrated the greatest potency for inhibition of l-lactic acid efflux at pH 7.0 and 7.4, respectively (~2.5-fold l-lactic acid intracellular accumulation). Simvastatin acid exhibited weak inhibitory potency on l-lactic acid efflux with an intracellular lactic acid increase of 25–35%. No l-lactic acid efflux inhibition was observed for simvastatin lactone or rosuvastatin. Pretreatment studies showed no change in inhibitory potential and did not affect lactic acid transport for all tested drugs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that loratadine and atorvastatin can inhibit the efflux transport of l-lactic acid in SkMC. Inhibition of l-lactic acid efflux may cause an accumulation of intracellular l-lactic acid leading to the reported drug-induced myotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tissue Specific Modulation of cyp2c and cyp3a mRNA Levels and Activities by Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice: The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Liver and Extra-Hepatic Tissues
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040040
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Various diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) may alter drug clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of T2D on CYP450 expressions and activities using high-fat diet (HFD) as a model of obesity-dependent diabetes in C57BL6 mice. The
[...] Read more.
Various diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) may alter drug clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of T2D on CYP450 expressions and activities using high-fat diet (HFD) as a model of obesity-dependent diabetes in C57BL6 mice. The cyp450 mRNA expression levels for 15 different isoforms were determined in the liver and extra-hepatic tissues (kidneys, lungs and heart) of HFD-treated animals (n = 45). Modulation of cyp450 metabolic activities by HFD was assessed using eight known substrates for specific human ortholog CYP450 isoforms: in vitro incubations were conducted with liver and extra-hepatic microsomes. Expression levels of cyp3a11 and cyp3a25 mRNA were decreased in the liver (>2–14-fold) and kidneys (>2-fold) of HFD groups which correlated with a significant reduction in midazolam metabolism (by 21- and 5-fold in hepatic and kidney microsomes, respectively, p < 0.001). HFD was associated with decreased activities of cyp2b and cyp2c subfamilies in all organs tested except in the kidneys (for tolbutamide). Other cyp450 hepatic activities were minimally or not affected by HFD. Taken together, our data suggest that substrate-dependent and tissue-dependent modulation of cyp450 metabolic capacities by early phases of T2D are observed, which could modulate drug disposition and pharmacological effects in various tissues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic and Toxicodynamic Characterization of a Novel Doxorubicin Derivative
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030035
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer medication with poor oral bioavailability and systemic toxicities. DoxQ was developed by conjugating Dox to the lymphatically absorbed antioxidant quercetin to improve Dox’s bioavailability and tolerability. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and
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Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer medication with poor oral bioavailability and systemic toxicities. DoxQ was developed by conjugating Dox to the lymphatically absorbed antioxidant quercetin to improve Dox’s bioavailability and tolerability. The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety of Dox after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of DoxQ or Dox (10 mg/kg) and investigate the intestinal lymphatic delivery of Dox after PO DoxQ administration in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Drug concentrations in serum, urine, and lymph were quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. DoxQ intact IV showed a 5-fold increase in the area under the curve (AUC)—18.6 ± 1.98 compared to 3.97 ± 0.71 μg * h/mL after Dox—and a significant reduction in the volume of distribution (Vss): 0.138 ± 0.015 versus 6.35 ± 1.06 L/kg. The fraction excreted unchanged in urine (fe) of IV DoxQ and Dox was ~5% and ~11%, respectively. Cumulative amounts of Dox in the mesenteric lymph fluid after oral DoxQ were twice as high as Dox in a mesenteric lymph duct cannulation rat model. Oral DoxQ increased AUC of Dox by ~1.5-fold compared to after oral Dox. Concentrations of β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) but not cardiac troponin (cTnI) were lower after IV DoxQ than Dox. DoxQ altered the pharmacokinetic disposition of Dox, improved its renal safety and oral bioavailability, and is in part transported through intestinal lymphatics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic Analysis of an Oral Multicomponent Joint Dietary Supplement (Phycox®) in Dogs
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030030
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Despite the lack of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, multicomponent dietary supplements (nutraceuticals) have become increasingly popular as primary or adjunct therapies for clinical osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine. Phycox® is a line of multicomponent joint support supplements marketed for joint health
[...] Read more.
Despite the lack of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, multicomponent dietary supplements (nutraceuticals) have become increasingly popular as primary or adjunct therapies for clinical osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine. Phycox® is a line of multicomponent joint support supplements marketed for joint health in dogs and horses. Many of the active constituents are recognized anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Due to a lack of PK studies in the literature for the product, a pilot PK study of select constituents in Phycox® was performed in healthy dogs. Two novel methods of analysis were developed and validated for quantification of glucosamine and select polyphenols using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After a single oral (PO) administrated dose of Phycox®, a series of blood samples from dogs were collected for 24 h post-dose and analyzed for concentrations of glucosamine HCl, hesperetin, resveratrol and naringenin. Non-compartmental PK analyses were carried out. Glucosamine was detected up to 8 h post-dose with a Tmax of 2 h and Cmax of 9.69 μg/mL. The polyphenols were not found at detectable concentrations in serum samples. Co-administration of glucosamine in the Phycox® formulation may enhance the absorption of glucosamine as determined by comparison of glucosamine PK data in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theophylline-7β-d-Ribofuranoside (Theonosine), a New Theophylline Metabolite Generated in Human and Animal Lung Tissue
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030028
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
While assessing the ability of mammalian lung tissue to metabolize theophylline, a new metabolite was isolated and characterized. The metabolite was produced by the microsomal fraction of lungs from several species, including rat, rabbit, dog, pig, sheep and human tissue. Metabolite production was
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While assessing the ability of mammalian lung tissue to metabolize theophylline, a new metabolite was isolated and characterized. The metabolite was produced by the microsomal fraction of lungs from several species, including rat, rabbit, dog, pig, sheep and human tissue. Metabolite production was blocked by boiling the microsomal tissue. This new metabolite, theophylline-7β-d-ribofuranoside (theonosine), was confirmed by several spectral methods and by comparison to an authentic synthetic compound. Tissue studies from rats, rabbits, dogs, and humans for cofactor involvement demonstrated an absolute requirement for NADP and enhanced metabolite production in the presence of magnesium ion. It remains to be demonstrated whether theonosine may contribute to the known pharmacological effects of theophylline. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040053
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded
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The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used as a carrier in polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery through various routes of administration. Chitosan has chemical functional groups that can be modified to achieve specific goals, making it a polymer with a tremendous range of potential applications. Nanoparticles (NP) prepared with chitosan and chitosan derivatives typically possess a positive surface charge and mucoadhesive properties such that can adhere to mucus membranes and release the drug payload in a sustained release manner. Chitosan-based NP have various applications in non-parenteral drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, pulmonary diseases, drug delivery to the brain and ocular infections which will be exemplified in this review. Chitosan shows low toxicity both in vitro and some in vivo models. This review explores recent research on chitosan based NP for non-parenteral drug delivery, chitosan properties, modification, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and preclinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Revolutionizing Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with the Use of Interstitial Fluid and Microneedles Technology
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040043
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) that uses blood as the biological matrix is the traditional gold standard, this practice may be impossible, impractical, or unethical for some patient populations (e.g., elderly, pediatric, anemic) and those with fragile veins. In the context of finding
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While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) that uses blood as the biological matrix is the traditional gold standard, this practice may be impossible, impractical, or unethical for some patient populations (e.g., elderly, pediatric, anemic) and those with fragile veins. In the context of finding an alternative biological matrix for TDM, this manuscript will provide a qualitative review on: (1) the principles of TDM; (2) alternative matrices for TDM; (3) current evidence supporting the use of interstitial fluid (ISF) for TDM in clinical models; (4) the use of microneedle technologies, which is potentially minimally invasive and pain-free, for the collection of ISF; and (5) future directions. The current state of knowledge on the use of ISF for TDM in humans is still limited. A thorough literature review indicates that only a few drug classes have been investigated (i.e., anti-infectives, anticonvulsants, and miscellaneous other agents). Studies have successfully demonstrated techniques for ISF extraction from the skin but have failed to demonstrate commercial feasibility of ISF extraction followed by analysis of its content outside the ISF-collecting microneedle device. In contrast, microneedle-integrated biosensors built to extract ISF and perform the biomolecule analysis on-device, with a key feature of not needing to transfer ISF to a separate instrument, have yielded promising results that need to be validated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The most promising applications for microneedle-integrated biosensors is continuous monitoring of biomolecules from the skin’s ISF. Conducting TDM using ISF is at the stage where its clinical utility should be investigated. Based on the advancements described in the current review, the immediate future direction for this area of research is to establish the suitability of using ISF for TDM in human models for drugs that have been found suitable in pre-clinical experiments. Full article
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Open AccessReview Predicting Oral Drug Absorption: Mini Review on Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9040041
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most marketed drugs are administered orally, despite the complex process of oral absorption that is difficult to predict. Oral bioavailability is dependent on the interplay between many processes that are dependent on both compound and physiological properties. Because of this complexity, computational oral
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Most marketed drugs are administered orally, despite the complex process of oral absorption that is difficult to predict. Oral bioavailability is dependent on the interplay between many processes that are dependent on both compound and physiological properties. Because of this complexity, computational oral physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have emerged as a tool to integrate these factors in an attempt to mechanistically capture the process of oral absorption. These models use inputs from in vitro assays to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs in the human body. The most common oral PBPK models are compartmental approaches, in which the gastrointestinal tract is characterized as a series of compartments through which the drug transits. The focus of this review is on the development of oral absorption PBPK models, followed by a brief discussion of the major applications of oral PBPK models in the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview Augmented Renal Clearance in Critical Illness: An Important Consideration in Drug Dosing
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030036
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a manifestation of enhanced renal function seen in critically ill patients. The use of regular unadjusted doses of renally eliminated drugs in patients with ARC might lead to therapy failure. The purpose of this scoping review was to
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Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a manifestation of enhanced renal function seen in critically ill patients. The use of regular unadjusted doses of renally eliminated drugs in patients with ARC might lead to therapy failure. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide and up-to-date summary of the available evidence pertaining to the phenomenon of ARC. A literature search of databases of available evidence in humans, with no language restriction, was conducted. Databases searched were MEDLINE (1946 to April 2017), EMBASE (1974 to April 2017) and the Cochrane Library (1999 to April 2017). A total of 57 records were included in the present review: 39 observational studies (25 prospective, 14 retrospective), 6 case reports/series and 12 conference abstracts. ARC has been reported to range from 14–80%. ARC is currently defined as an increased creatinine clearance of greater than 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 best measured by 8–24 h urine collection. Patients exhibiting ARC tend to be younger (<50 years old), of male gender, had a recent history of trauma, and had lower critical illness severity scores. Numerous studies have reported antimicrobials treatment failures when using standard dosing regimens in patients with ARC. In conclusion, ARC is an important phenomenon that might have significant impact on outcome in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk, using higher doses of renally eliminated drugs or use of non-renally eliminated alternatives might need to be considered in ICU patients with ARC. More research is needed to solidify dosing recommendations of various drugs in patients with ARC. Full article
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Open AccessReview Revisiting the Latency of Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)—How Does the Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Influence Their Function?
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030032
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are phase 2 conjugation enzymes mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the liver and many other tissues, and can be recovered in artificial ER membrane preparations (microsomes). They catalyze glucuronidation reactions in various aglycone substrates, contributing significantly to
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Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are phase 2 conjugation enzymes mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the liver and many other tissues, and can be recovered in artificial ER membrane preparations (microsomes). They catalyze glucuronidation reactions in various aglycone substrates, contributing significantly to the body’s chemical defense mechanism. There has been controversy over the last 50 years in the UGT field with respect to the explanation for the phenomenon of latency: full UGT activity revealed by chemical or physical disruption of the microsomal membrane. Because latency can lead to inaccurate measurements of UGT activity in vitro, and subsequent underprediction of drug clearance in vivo, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Three major hypotheses have been advanced to explain UGT latency: compartmentation, conformation, and adenine nucleotide inhibition. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind each hypothesis in depth, and suggest some additional studies that may reveal more information on this intriguing phenomenon. Full article
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Open AccessReview Clinical Implications of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in the Kidney, Liver, Lung and Brain: An Emerging Therapeutic Target
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney,
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Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport. Furthermore, 20-HETE is involved in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and polycystic kidney diseases. The role of 20-HETE in the liver is not clearly understood although it represents 50%–75% of liver CYP-dependent AA metabolism, and it is associated with liver cirrhotic ascites. In the respiratory system, 20-HETE plays a role in pulmonary cell survival, pulmonary vascular tone and tone of the airways. As for the brain, 20-HETE is involved in cerebral I/R injury. Moreover, 20-HETE has angiogenic and mitogenic properties and thus helps in tumor promotion. Several inhibitors and inducers of the synthesis of 20-HETE as well as 20-HETE analogues and antagonists are recently available and could be promising therapeutic options for the treatment of many disease states in the future. Full article
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