Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Revisiting the Latency of Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)—How Does the Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Influence Their Function?
Previous Article in Journal
Efficient Transdermal Delivery of Alendronate, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, Using Tip-Loaded Self-Dissolving Microneedle Arrays for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Theophylline-7β-d-Ribofuranoside (Theonosine), a New Theophylline Metabolite Generated in Human and Animal Lung Tissue
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics9030030

Pharmacokinetic Analysis of an Oral Multicomponent Joint Dietary Supplement (Phycox®) in Dogs

1
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
2
College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T5, Canada
3
Comparative Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
4
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism in Canada: The Current Landscape)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1693 KB, uploaded 18 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Despite the lack of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, multicomponent dietary supplements (nutraceuticals) have become increasingly popular as primary or adjunct therapies for clinical osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine. Phycox® is a line of multicomponent joint support supplements marketed for joint health in dogs and horses. Many of the active constituents are recognized anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Due to a lack of PK studies in the literature for the product, a pilot PK study of select constituents in Phycox® was performed in healthy dogs. Two novel methods of analysis were developed and validated for quantification of glucosamine and select polyphenols using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After a single oral (PO) administrated dose of Phycox®, a series of blood samples from dogs were collected for 24 h post-dose and analyzed for concentrations of glucosamine HCl, hesperetin, resveratrol and naringenin. Non-compartmental PK analyses were carried out. Glucosamine was detected up to 8 h post-dose with a Tmax of 2 h and Cmax of 9.69 μg/mL. The polyphenols were not found at detectable concentrations in serum samples. Co-administration of glucosamine in the Phycox® formulation may enhance the absorption of glucosamine as determined by comparison of glucosamine PK data in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucosamine; nutraceutical; osteoarthritis; pharmacokinetics; polyphenols; veterinary medicine glucosamine; nutraceutical; osteoarthritis; pharmacokinetics; polyphenols; veterinary medicine
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez, S.E.; Lillico, R.; Lakowski, T.M.; Martinez, S.A.; Davies, N.M. Pharmacokinetic Analysis of an Oral Multicomponent Joint Dietary Supplement (Phycox®) in Dogs. Pharmaceutics 2017, 9, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top