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Special Issue "Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (13 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Lucilla Poston

Department of Women and Children’s Health, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, 10th floor North Wing St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: women and children’s health; maternal obesity; nutrition in pregnancy; gestational diabetes; pre-eclampsia; lifecourse of health and disease
Guest Editor
Dr. Angela Flynn

Department of Women and Children’s Health, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, 10th floor North Wing St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
E-Mail
Interests: nutrition in pregnancy; antenatal interventions in obese pregnancy; gestational diabetes; micronutrient status in pregnancy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pivotal role of nutrition in pregnancy is well established, both for short-term pregnancy outcomes, and long-term health of the child. Globally, a concerted effort has been made towards improving the macro and micronutrient nutritional status of pregnant women, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), with varying success. The limited benefits of nutrient supplements in LMIC has prompted a call for pre-conception intervention.

Due to the increasing prevalence of pre-existing maternal disorders which compromise pregnancy outcome and in which nutrition in pregnancy can modify health outcomes, there is a requirement for widely available specialist advice. Foremost amongst these disorders is the increase in the population prevalence of obesity that has resulted in more women being obese at the onset of pregnancy. Obesity is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for both mother and child and the increasing disease burden has prompted a substantive new literature focussing on nutrition in obese pregnant women which has yet to be widely disseminated. Nutritional requirements differ in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes, and also in gestational diabetes (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), both of which are frequently associated with obesity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also increasingly prevalent due to heightened prevalence of chronic hypertension and increasing age amongst pregnant women. A Special Issue of Nutrients, which focuses on these conditions, as well as normal pregnancy nutrition would be of immediate value to health care professionals, in providing a state-of-the-art summary of contemporary knowledge.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy” is, firstly, therefore to select papers, which focus on nutrition and its role in maternal health outcomes in low, middle and higher-income countries. Following this, selected papers will evaluate nutrient requirements and  strategies to improve nutrition in pregnancy complicated by Obesity, Type 1 diabetes , GDM, CKD and PCOS. This Special Issue should provide  a useful resource for health care professionals, as well as a general readership.

On this topic, you are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Special Issue.

Prof. Lucilla Poston
Dr. Angela Flynn
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pregnancy
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes in pregnancy
  • Renal disease in pregnancy
  • Antenatal interventions
  • Polycystic Ovary syndrome
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Low and Middle Income Countries
  • High Income Countries

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Vitamin E Status and Associated Pregnancy Outcomes in Maternal–Infant Dyads between a Nigerian and a United States Population
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091300
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and vitamin E has powerful anti-oxidant properties with the potential to impact health outcomes. Tocopherol isomers of vitamin E differ in their ability to modulate inflammation and vary in concentration in diets containing high proportions
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and vitamin E has powerful anti-oxidant properties with the potential to impact health outcomes. Tocopherol isomers of vitamin E differ in their ability to modulate inflammation and vary in concentration in diets containing high proportions of processed versus unprocessed foods. The purpose of this study was to compare vitamin E status and associated pregnancy outcomes (mode of delivery, chorioamnionitis, APGARs (measure of appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration), gestational age at delivery, and fetal growth) between maternal–infant dyads in a developed and a developing nation to identify potentially modifiable differences that may impact pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and provide a way to improve maternal and neonatal health. Plasma tocopherol levels were evaluated in 189 Midwestern United States (US) mother–infant pairs and 99 Central Nigerian mother–infant pairs. Maternal and infant concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol were measured using HPLC with diode-array detection. Descriptive statistics were calculated and tocopherol concentrations were associated with clinical outcomes such as mode of delivery, chorioamnionitis, APGARS, and fetal growth. Alpha- and γ-tocopherol levels were higher in the US mothers, (alpha: 12,357.9 (175.23–34,687.75) vs. 8333.1 (1576.59–16,248.40) (mcg/L); p < 0.001) (gamma: 340.7 (224.59–4385.95) vs. 357.5 (66.36–1775.31) (mcg/L); p < 0.001), while δ-tocopherol levels were higher in the Nigerian mothers (delta: 261.7 (24.70–1324.71) vs. 368.9 (43.06–1886.47) (mcg/L); p < 0.001). US infants had higher γ-tocopherol levels than Nigerian infants (203.1 (42.53–1953.23) vs. 113.8 (0.00–823.00) (mcg/L); p < 0.001), while both the Nigerian mothers and infants had higher α:γ-tocopherol ratios (8.5 vs. 26.2, and 8.9 vs. 18.8, respectively; p < 0.001). Our results in both populations show associations between increased circulating γ-tocopherol and negative outcomes like Caesarian sections, in contrast to the associations with positive outcomes such as vaginal delivery seen with increased α:γ-tocopherol ratios. Growth was positively associated with α- and γ-tocopherols in cord blood in the US population, and with cord blood δ-tocopherols in the Nigerian population. Tocopherol levels likely impact health outcomes in pregnancy in a complicated metabolism across the maternal–fetal axis that appears to be potentially influenced by culture and available diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation Reduced Circulating Branched Chain Amino Acids at 12 Weeks Gestation in an Open Trial of Guatemalan Women Who Are Overweight or Obese
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091282
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Elevated branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are well-established biomarkers of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Mounting evidence suggests that low- and middle-income countries are suffering from a “double burden” of both undernutrition (growth stunting) and overnutrition (obesity) as these countries
[...] Read more.
Elevated branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are well-established biomarkers of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Mounting evidence suggests that low- and middle-income countries are suffering from a “double burden” of both undernutrition (growth stunting) and overnutrition (obesity) as these countries undergo a “nutrition transition”. The purpose of this study was to examine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and a daily lipid-based micronutrient supplement (LNS, Nutriset) would lead to cross-sectional differences in circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in Guatemalan women experiencing short stature during early pregnancy. Using data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial, Women First, we studied women who were normal weight (NW, BMI range for this cohort = 20.1–24.1 kg/m2) or overweight/obese (OW/OB, BMI range for this cohort = 25.6–31.9 kg/m2), and divided into two groups: those who received daily LNS ≥ 3 months prior to conception through 12 weeks gestation (+LNS), or no LNS (−LNS) (n = 9–10/group). BCAAs levels were obtained from dried blood spot card samples (DBS) assessed at 12 weeks gestation. DBS cards provide a stable, efficient, and reliable means of collecting, transporting, and storing blood samples in low resource or field settings. Circulating maternal leptin, adiponectin, and insulin were determined by immunoassays from serum samples collected at 12 weeks gestation. We found maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) was associated with higher circulating BCAAs (r2 = 0.433, p = 0.002) and higher leptin/adiponectin ratio (r = 0.466, p = 0.044) in −LNS mothers at 12 weeks gestation. +LNS mothers demonstrated no correlations between BCAAs or leptin/adiponectin ratio across ppBMI suggesting LNS may be effective at improving metabolic status in OW/OB mothers during early pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Stress Potentiates the Effect of an Inflammatory Diet in Pregnancy on Maternal Concentrations of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091252
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is known to adversely impact fetal development, birth outcomes, and offspring physical and mental health. Diet and stress have been identified as important determinants of inflammation, yet their combined effects have not been examined in the context of pregnancy.
[...] Read more.
Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is known to adversely impact fetal development, birth outcomes, and offspring physical and mental health. Diet and stress have been identified as important determinants of inflammation, yet their combined effects have not been examined in the context of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal diet with inflammatory potential and psychological stress, and to determine their interaction effect on concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α across pregnancy. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of n = 202 women with three assessments during pregnancy, which included: ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of maternal stress using the perceived stress scale (PSS) short version; 24-h dietary recalls from which the dietary inflammatory index (DII) was computed; and serum measurements of TNF-α. Across pregnancy, higher perceived stress was associated with consumption of a more pro-inflammatory diet (r = 0.137; p < 0.05). In a linear regression model adjusted for covariates, DII was positively associated with TNF-α (B = 0.093, p = 0.010). The effect of the pro-inflammatory diet on concentrations of TNF-α was more pronounced in women reporting higher levels of stress (B = 0.134, p = 0.018 for DII*PSS interaction). These results highlight the need to consider nutrition and stress concurrently in the context of inflammation during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake and Beliefs of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes in Cape Town, South Africa
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091183
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the dietary intake of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their beliefs relating to the consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and sugary foods and drinks. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 pregnant women with GDM in
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the dietary intake of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their beliefs relating to the consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and sugary foods and drinks. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 pregnant women with GDM in Cape Town. Dietary intake was assessed using a quantified Food Frequency Questionnaire and beliefs relating to food choices were assessed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The mean energy intake was 7268 KJ, carbohydrate was 220 (±104.5) g, protein 60.3 (±27.5) g and fat 67.7 (±44.2) g. The macronutrient distribution was 55% carbohydrates, 14.5% protein and 30.5% fat of total energy. The majority of the sample had inadequate intakes of vitamin D (87.4%), folate (96.5%) and iron (91.3%). The median (IQR) amount of added table sugar and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) was 4.0 (0.00–12.5) g and 17.9 (0.0–132.8) mL per day, respectively. Only 31.4% met the recommendation (400 g per day) for F&V. Beliefs that it was not easy to exclude sugary foods/drinks and that knowing how to control cravings for sugary foods/drinks are areas to target messages on the sugar content of SSBs. In conclusion, the dietary intake of these women was not optimal and fell short of several nutritional guidelines for pregnant women with hyperglycaemia. The strongly held beliefs regarding sugary foods/drinks may contribute to poor adherence to nutritional guidelines among pregnant women with GDM in South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Change during Pregnancy and Women’s Reasons for Change
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081032
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Women often make dietary changes during pregnancy; however, dietary modifications and reasons for changes are not well studied. We aimed to describe the dietary changes made during pregnancy, describe reasons for dietary changes, and determine what changes aligned with recommendations. Pregnant women (
[...] Read more.
Women often make dietary changes during pregnancy; however, dietary modifications and reasons for changes are not well studied. We aimed to describe the dietary changes made during pregnancy, describe reasons for dietary changes, and determine what changes aligned with recommendations. Pregnant women (n = 379) recruited to the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study in 2009/2010 completed a questionnaire in which they described dietary changes made during pregnancy and reasons for those changes. Changes and reasons were coded into categories. Women commonly reported increasing their intake of milk products, fruit, and sweet items and commonly decreased or eliminated intake of caffeine, alcohol, and meats. Women frequently reduced intake of foods for the baby’s health and increased foods to satisfy cravings. Changes made commonly aligned with recommendations for caffeine, alcohol intake, food safety, milk and alternatives, and fruit. Changes contrary to recommendations were common for fish and meats. The dietary changes women make during pregnancy appear to reflect women’s efforts to balance physiological changes accompanying pregnancy with the desire for healthy pregnancy outcomes. Understanding the reasons behind dietary change during pregnancy will help researchers and health professionals design effective strategies and public health messages to promote healthier pregnancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Maternal Lipid Concentrations during Early Pregnancy and Eating Behaviour and Energy Intake in the Offspring
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081026
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Worldwide, childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, making it a pressing public health issue. Obesity is strongly linked to eating behaviour and energy intake but little is known about their prenatal determinants. In an exploratory study of data collected within the Amsterdam Born Children
[...] Read more.
Worldwide, childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, making it a pressing public health issue. Obesity is strongly linked to eating behaviour and energy intake but little is known about their prenatal determinants. In an exploratory study of data collected within the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, we hypothesized that intra-uterine exposure to increased lipids is associated with adverse eating behaviour and increased energy intake in the offspring at age 5. During early gestation, a non-fasting blood sample was taken from 1463 non-diabetic Dutch women, including: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). Eating behaviour, measured using the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, included food approaching (enjoyment of food, food responsiveness) and food avoidant behaviour (satiety responsiveness, slowness of eating). Energy intake (total energy, fat and carbohydrate intake) was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Increased maternal TC concentrations were associated with lower enjoyment of food, higher satiety responsiveness and increased slowness of eating, as well as decreased kcal and fat intake in the offspring. Elevated ApoA1 was associated with increased slowness of eating, lower enjoyment of food and lower kcal, fat and carbohydrate intake. ApoB was positively associated with satiety responsiveness and slowness of eating. Higher TG concentrations were associated with higher food responsiveness. Maternal FFA did not show significant associations. Findings demonstrated that the maternal prenatal lipid profile was associated with offspring’s eating behaviour and energy intake, although not always in the hypothesized direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessArticle Low Dietary Intakes of Essential Nutrients during Pregnancy in Vietnam
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081025
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Inadequate intake of nutrients during pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy and infant outcomes; however, evidence remains limited in low-resource settings in Asia. This paper assessed food, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes among 1944 Vietnamese pregnant women. Dietary information was collected via an
[...] Read more.
Inadequate intake of nutrients during pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy and infant outcomes; however, evidence remains limited in low-resource settings in Asia. This paper assessed food, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes among 1944 Vietnamese pregnant women. Dietary information was collected via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using the Vietnamese food composition tables. The levels of nutrient intakes were evaluated against the Vietnamese recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for pregnancy. The diet profiles were reported as means and percentages. The average daily food intakes across socio-demographic factors were compared using ANOVA, with adjustment for multiple comparisons by the Tukey–Kramer test. Rice, fruits, and vegetables were the main food sources consumed. The mean energy intake was 2004 kcal/day with 15.9%, 31.8%, and 52.2% of energy deriving from proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, respectively. Just over half of the women did not meet the RNI for total energy intake. The intakes of essential micronutrients including folate, calcium, iron, and zinc were below the RNI, and almost all pregnant women failed to meet the recommendations for these micronutrients. The associations of maternal age, education, and pre-pregnancy body mass index with nutrient intakes varied across the nutrient subgroups. Targeted programs are needed to improve nutrient intakes in Vietnamese pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Relationships between Maternal Obesity and Maternal and Neonatal Iron Status
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081000
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
Obesity in pregnancy may negatively influence maternal and infant iron status. The aim of this study was to examine the association of obesity with inflammatory and iron status in both mother and infant in two prospective studies in pregnancy: UPBEAT and SCOPE. Maternal
[...] Read more.
Obesity in pregnancy may negatively influence maternal and infant iron status. The aim of this study was to examine the association of obesity with inflammatory and iron status in both mother and infant in two prospective studies in pregnancy: UPBEAT and SCOPE. Maternal blood samples from obese (n = 245, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and normal weight (n = 245, BMI < 25 kg/m2) age matched pregnant women collected at approximately 15 weeks’ gestation, and umbilical cord blood samples collected at delivery, were analysed for a range of inflammatory and iron status biomarkers. Concentrations of C- reactive protein and Interleukin-6 in obese women compared to normal weight women were indicative of an inflammatory response. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration [18.37 nmol/L (SD 5.65) vs. 13.15 nmol/L (SD 2.33)] and the ratio of sTfR and serum ferritin [1.03 (SD 0.56) vs. 0.69 (SD 0.23)] were significantly higher in obese women compared to normal weight women (P < 0.001). Women from ethnic minority groups (n = 64) had higher sTfR concentration compared with white women. There was no difference in maternal hepcidin between obese and normal weight women. Iron status determined by cord ferritin was not statistically different in neonates born to obese women compared with neonates born to normal weight women when adjusted for potential confounding variables. Obesity is negatively associated with markers of maternal iron status, with ethnic minority women having poorer iron statuses than white women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Pregnancy: Results from a Cohort Study in Normal Weight Caucasian Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070928
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The
[...] Read more.
The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The aim of this study is to investigate the adherence to MedDiet during pregnancy in the 1st and in the 3rd trimester, and to test whether the adherence was associated with serum adiponectin levels. The study was carried out on 99 normal weight Caucasian women. The adherence to MedDiet was measured by a 13-point Mediterranean scale. The whole sample scored 7.2 ± 1.5, with no difference between first and third trimester (p = 0.7). Critical points were: fruit < 3 servings/day in 77% of the sample, beans < 3 times/week in 89%, fish < 2 times/week in 69%, and nut weekly intake < 30 g in 75%. The serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased from the first to the third trimester (−16% ± 4%, p = 0.008), which confirms a low-grade inflammatory condition associated with advancing gestational age. The women who were in the highest tertile of the adherence to MedDiet had a lower percentage decrease, as compared with those in the lowest tertile (10% ± 11% vs. −34% ± 3%, p = 0.01). Even if in pregnancy the adiponectin levels are strongly influenced by the low-grade inflammation, the adherence to MedDiet may modulate this state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Determinants of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) Status in a High Fish-Eating Cohort during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070927
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant
[...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for neurodevelopment and the developing foetus depends on an optimal maternal status. Fish is a rich source of PUFA. The current study investigated dietary patterns, and associations with PUFA status in a high-fish consuming cohort of pregnant women in the Seychelles. At 28 weeks’ gestation, pregnant women provided a blood sample, from which serum total PUFA concentrations were measured, A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Fish Use Questionnaire (FUQ) were also completed. Principal component analysis (PCA) of dietary information identified four patterns. Regression analyses found dietary pattern 2, containing foods traditionally eaten in the Seychelles e.g., fish, fruit and vegetables was positively associated with serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (β = 0.134; CI = 0.001, 0.022), and serum total n-3 PUFA (β = 0.139; CI = 0.001, 0.023) concentrations. Dietary pattern 1, high in processed foods, snacks, white meat and eggs, was not significantly associated with any of the serum PUFA concentrations. The FUQ indicated that fatty fish was associated with EPA status (β = 0.180; CI = 0.001, 0.005) in high consumers. The second dietary pattern, consisting of higher consumption of fish and fruit, was positively associated with n-3 PUFA status during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Interactions between Vitamin D Status, Calcium Intake and Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations in Healthy White-Skinned Pregnant Women at Northern Latitude
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070916
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Adverse effects of low vitamin D status and calcium intakes in pregnancy may be mediated through functional effects on the calcium metabolic system. Little explored in pregnancy, we aimed to examine the relative importance of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium intake on
[...] Read more.
Adverse effects of low vitamin D status and calcium intakes in pregnancy may be mediated through functional effects on the calcium metabolic system. Little explored in pregnancy, we aimed to examine the relative importance of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and calcium intake on parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in healthy white-skinned pregnant women. This cross-sectional analysis included 142 participants (14 ± 2 weeks’ gestation) at baseline of a vitamin D intervention trial at 51.9 °N. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, and albumin-corrected calcium were quantified biochemically. Total vitamin D and calcium intakes (diet and supplements) were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The mean ± SD vitamin D intake was 10.7 ± 5.2 μg/day. With a mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D of 54.9 ± 22.6 nmol/L, 44% of women were <50 nmol/L and 13% <30 nmol/L. Calcium intakes (mean ± SD) were 1182 ± 488 mg/day and 23% of participants consumed <800 mg/day. The mean ± SD serum albumin-adjusted calcium was 2.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L and geometric mean (95% CI) PTH was 9.2 (8.4, 10.2) pg/mL. PTH was inversely correlated with serum 25(OH)D (r = −0.311, p < 0.001), but not with calcium intake or serum calcium (r = −0.087 and 0.057, respectively, both p > 0.05). Analysis of variance showed that while serum 25(OH)D (dichotomised at 50 nmol/L) had a significant effect on PTH (p = 0.025), calcium intake (<800, 800–1000, ≥1000 mg/day) had no effect (p = 0.822). There was no 25(OH)D-calcium intake interaction effect on PTH (p = 0.941). In this group of white-skinned women with largely sufficient calcium intakes, serum 25(OH)D was important for maintaining normal PTH concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns Prior to Pregnancy and Associations with Pregnancy Complications
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070914
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Few studies have explored pre-pregnancy diet and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) derive pre-pregnancy dietary patterns for women enrolled in a prospective cohort in the province of Alberta, Canada; (2) describe associations between dietary patterns
[...] Read more.
Few studies have explored pre-pregnancy diet and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. The objectives of this study were to: (1) derive pre-pregnancy dietary patterns for women enrolled in a prospective cohort in the province of Alberta, Canada; (2) describe associations between dietary patterns and socio-demographic characteristics; and (3) describe associations between dietary patterns and pregnancy complications. Upon enrolment into the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study (median age of gestation, 17 weeks), women (n = 1545) completed a validated 142-item food frequency questionnaire recording food and beverages consumed “in the 12 months prior to pregnancy”. Other assessments included pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, and socio-demographic characteristics. Dietary patterns were derived using principal components analysis. Scores were calculated to represent adherence with each dietary pattern retained. Four dietary patterns were retained, accounting for 22.9% of the variation in the overall diet. Dietary patterns were named the “healthy”, “meat and refined carbohydrate”, “beans, cheese and salad” or “tea and coffee” patterns. Higher “healthy” pattern scores prior to pregnancy were associated with lower odds of developing gestational hypertension during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR): 0.6, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.4, 0.9). Diet prior to pregnancy is an important target for interventions and may reduce the likelihood of developing complications such as gestational hypertension during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessArticle A Vegetarian Diet Is a Major Determinant of Gut Microbiota Composition in Early Pregnancy
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070890
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota.
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The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota. This study explored the gut microbiota profile in women who were vegetarian or omnivorous in early gestation. Women were selected from participants in the Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes (SPRING) randomised controlled trial. Nine women identified as vegetarians were matched to omnivorous women in a 1:2 ratio. Microbiota analyses were performed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and analysed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) and Calypso software tools. There was no difference in alpha diversity, but beta diversity was slightly reduced in vegetarians. There were differences seen in the relative abundance of several genera in those on a vegetarian diet, specifically a reduction in Collinsella, Holdemania, and increases in the relative abundances of Roseburia and Lachnospiraceae. In this sub-analysis of gut microbiota from women in early pregnancy, a vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diet, was associated with a different gut microbiome, with features suggesting alterations in fermentation end products from a mixed acid fermentation towards more acetate/butyrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Nutritional Interventions on Micronutrient Status in Pregnant Malawian Women with Moderate Malnutrition: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070879
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
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Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy are common in Africa and can cause adverse outcomes. The objective was to measure micronutrient status and change in moderately malnourished pregnant Malawian women randomized to one of three nutritional interventions. Serum vitamin B12, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, folate,
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Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy are common in Africa and can cause adverse outcomes. The objective was to measure micronutrient status and change in moderately malnourished pregnant Malawian women randomized to one of three nutritional interventions. Serum vitamin B12, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, folate, retinol, ferritin, zinc, albumin and C-reactive protein were measured in pregnant women with MUAC ≥20.6 cm and ≤23.0 cm at enrollment (n = 343) and after 10 weeks (n = 229) of receiving: (1) ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF); (2) fortified corn-soy blend (CSB+) with multiple-micronutrient supplement (CSB+UNIMMAP); or (3) CSB+ with iron and folic acid (CSB+IFA). Each provided 100–300% Recommended Dietary Allowance of most micronutrients and 900 kcal/day. Birth length was measured in 272 infants. Enrollment measurements indicated deficiencies in vitamin B12 (20.9%) and zinc (22.3%), low values of ferritin (25.1%) and albumin (33.7%), and elevated CRP (46.0%). Vitamin B12 is known to decrease in the third trimester; the RUSF group had the smallest decrease from enrollment to week 10 (3%), compared to 20% decrease in the CSB+IFA group and 8% decrease in the CSB+UNIMMAP group (p = 0.001). Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased most in the RUSF group (+6.4 ng/mL), compared to CSB+IFA (+1.7 ng/mL) and CSB+UNIMMAP (+2.7 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). Micronutrient deficiencies and inflammation are common among moderately malnourished pregnant women and had little improvement despite supplementation above the RDA, with the exception of vitamins B12 and D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle In Overweight or Obese Pregnant Women, Maternal Dietary Factors are not Associated with Fetal Growth and Adiposity
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070870
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maternal dietary factors and fetal growth and adiposity in overweight and obese women. Women randomised to the ‘Standard Care’ group of the LIMIT trial were included. Maternal dietary factors including Healthy Eating Index,
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The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maternal dietary factors and fetal growth and adiposity in overweight and obese women. Women randomised to the ‘Standard Care’ group of the LIMIT trial were included. Maternal dietary factors including Healthy Eating Index, total energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, glycaemic load and index were measured using the Harvard semi-quantitative Food Frequency questionnaire at time of study entry, 28 and 36 weeks’ gestation. Fetal ultrasound measurements of biometry and adiposity were obtained at 28 and 36 weeks’ gestation. Linear regression models were used to associate between dietary factors and fetal growth and adiposity measurements. There were 721 women included in this exploratory analysis. A 10 unit increase in the log total energy was associated with a reduction in mid-thigh lean mass by 4.94 mm at 28 weeks (95% CI −9.57 mm, −0.32 mm; p = 0.036) and 7.02 mm at 36 weeks (95% CI −13.69 mm, −0.35 mm; p = 0.039). A 10 unit increase in Healthy Eating Index score was associated with a reduced mean subscapular skin fold measure at 28 weeks by 0.17 mm (95% CI −0.32 mm, −0.03 mm; p = 0.021). We did not identify consistent associations between maternal diet and measures of fetal growth and adiposity in overweight and obese women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050579
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and
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Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and fat distribution at birth, 1, 3, and 5 years. Mean energy intake was 2157 ± 375 kcal (n = 186) in early and 2208 ± 460 kcal (n = 167) in late gestation. The partition model showed mostly no significant associations between maternal diet in early pregnancy and offspring body composition. In late pregnancy, higher fat intake was negatively associated with clinical outcomes at birth, 1, and 5 years. Protein intake was negatively associated with BMI z score (zBMI) at 3 and 5 years. A 10 g increase in fiber was associated with an increase of 3.50 mm2 abdominal subcutaneous fat at 1, 172.49 g fat mass at 3, and 0.23 zBMI at 5 years. Results were largely comparable in the substitution model. An incremental increase in fat and protein at the expense of carbohydrates in late but not early pregnancy may be associated with lower fat mass up to 5 years. Findings require confirmation by additional prospective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040489
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015
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Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81%)) were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5), low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of 25.4 (5.5–117.3), 17.8 (2.3–138.5), 4.0 (1.7–9.5), 3.3 (1.4–7.9), 2.8 (1.2–6.4), and 2.0 (1.1–3.5), respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5); 0.2 (0.1–0.6); 0.3 (0.1–0.9); and 0.4 (0.2–0.8), respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%). Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Caffeine Intake Guideline during Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030319
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
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Abstract
The aims of this study were to identify: (i) the proportion of women exceeding the caffeine intake guideline (>200 mg/day) during each trimester, accounting for point of pregnancy awareness; (ii) guideline adherence trajectories across pregnancy; (iii) maternal characteristics associated with trajectories; and (iv)
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The aims of this study were to identify: (i) the proportion of women exceeding the caffeine intake guideline (>200 mg/day) during each trimester, accounting for point of pregnancy awareness; (ii) guideline adherence trajectories across pregnancy; (iii) maternal characteristics associated with trajectories; and (iv) association between adherence and growth restriction birth outcomes. Typical and maximal intake per consumption day for the first trimester (T1; pre- and post-pregnancy awareness), second (T2), and third trimester (T3) were recorded for a prospective cohort of pregnant Australian women with singleton births (n = 1232). Birth outcomes were birth weight, small for gestational age, and head circumference. For each period, participants were classified as abstinent, within (≤200 mg), or in excess (>200 mg). Latent class growth analyses identified guideline adherence trajectories; regression analyses identified associations between adherence in each trimester and birth outcomes. The percentage of participants who reported caffeine use declined between T1 pre- and post-pregnancy awareness (89% to 68%), and increased in T2 and T3 (79% and 80%). Trajectories were: ‘low consumption’ (22%): low probability of any use; ‘within-guideline’ (70%): high probability of guideline adherence; and ‘decreasing heavy use’ (8%): decreasing probability of excess use. The latter two groups were more likely to report alcohol and tobacco use, and less likely to report planning pregnancy and fertility problems. Exceeding the guideline T1 pre-pregnancy awareness was associated with lower birth weight after covariate control (b = −143.16, p = 0.011). Overall, high caffeine intake pre-pregnancy awareness occurs amongst a significant minority of women, and continued excess use post-pregnancy awareness is more common where pregnancy is unplanned. Excess caffeine consumption pre-pregnancy awareness may increase the risk for lower birth weight. Increasing awareness of the guideline in pregnancy and preconception health care may be warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)

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Open AccessReview Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviours in African Migrant Women Living in High Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Framework Synthesis
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081017
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Dietary and physical activity behaviours during preconception and in pregnancy are important determinants of maternal and child health. This review synthesised the available evidence on dietary and physical activity behaviours in pregnant women and women of childbearing age women who have migrated from
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Dietary and physical activity behaviours during preconception and in pregnancy are important determinants of maternal and child health. This review synthesised the available evidence on dietary and physical activity behaviours in pregnant women and women of childbearing age women who have migrated from African countries to live in high income countries. Searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Pubmed, CINAHL, Scopus, Proquest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Searches were restricted to studies conducted in high income countries and published in English. Data extraction and quality assessment were carried out in duplicate. Findings were synthesised using a framework approach, which included both a priori and emergent themes. Fourteen studies were identified; ten quantitative and four qualitative. Four studies included pregnant women. Data on nutrient intakes included macro- and micro-nutrients; and were suggestive of inadequacies in iron, folate, and calcium; and excessive sodium intakes. Dietary patterns were bicultural, including both Westernised and African dietary practices. Findings on physical activity behaviours were conflicting. Dietary and physical activity behaviours were influenced by post-migration environments, culture, religion, and food or physical activity-related beliefs and perceptions. Further studies are required to understand the influence of sociodemographic and other migration-related factors on behaviour changes after migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Open AccessReview The Association of Vitamin D Levels with Common Pregnancy Complications
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070867
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
The association between vitamin D deficiency and various adverse pregnancy outcomes has been extensively investigated in recent years. The pregnant woman is the only source of vitamin D for the foetus. The main sources of vitamin D for pregnant women are sunlight, fortified
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The association between vitamin D deficiency and various adverse pregnancy outcomes has been extensively investigated in recent years. The pregnant woman is the only source of vitamin D for the foetus. The main sources of vitamin D for pregnant women are sunlight, fortified dairy products, oily fish and dietary supplements. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with some adverse neonatal outcomes as well as an increased risk of late pregnancy complications. The outcomes of the published studies investigating preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus vary with some large trials suggesting a potential positive effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on the decreased risk of these complications. Research also suggests a possible connection between lower vitamin D concentrations and increased risk of preterm labour. In our manuscript, we aim to review the existing literature regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency, and possible pregnancy complications arising from it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessReview Maternal Anemia and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050601
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objective: To systematically analyze the relationship between maternal anemia and low birth weight. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in the main databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and Lilacs), the gray literature, and the reference lists of selected articles.
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Objective: To systematically analyze the relationship between maternal anemia and low birth weight. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in the main databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and Lilacs), the gray literature, and the reference lists of selected articles. Cohort and case-control studies that met the eligibility criteria were included in the review. There was no limitation on the language or date of publication. Article selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses with random effects, subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were performed. Publication bias was measured using Egger regression and visual funnel plot inspection. Results: A total of 7243 articles were found, of which 71 comprised the systematic review and 68 were included in the meta-analyses. Maternal anemia was associated with low birth weight with an adjusted OR: 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06–1.43) and I2: 58%. The meta-regressions confirmed that the sample size and the methodological quality may partially explain the statistical heterogeneity. Conclusions: Maternal anemia was considered a risk factor for low birth weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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