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Special Issue "Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 13 June 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Lucilla Poston

Department of Women and Children’s Health, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, 10th floor North Wing St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: women and children’s health; maternal obesity; nutrition in pregnancy; gestational diabetes; pre-eclampsia; lifecourse of health and disease
Guest Editor
Dr. Angela Flynn

Department of Women and Children’s Health, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, 10th floor North Wing St Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK
E-Mail
Interests: nutrition in pregnancy; antenatal interventions in obese pregnancy; gestational diabetes; micronutrient status in pregnancy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pivotal role of nutrition in pregnancy is well established, both for short-term pregnancy outcomes, and long-term health of the child. Globally, a concerted effort has been made towards improving the macro and micronutrient nutritional status of pregnant women, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), with varying success. The limited benefits of nutrient supplements in LMIC has prompted a call for pre-conception intervention.

Due to the increasing prevalence of pre-existing maternal disorders which compromise pregnancy outcome and in which nutrition in pregnancy can modify health outcomes, there is a requirement for widely available specialist advice. Foremost amongst these disorders is the increase in the population prevalence of obesity that has resulted in more women being obese at the onset of pregnancy. Obesity is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for both mother and child and the increasing disease burden has prompted a substantive new literature focussing on nutrition in obese pregnant women which has yet to be widely disseminated. Nutritional requirements differ in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes, and also in gestational diabetes (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), both of which are frequently associated with obesity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also increasingly prevalent due to heightened prevalence of chronic hypertension and increasing age amongst pregnant women. A Special Issue of Nutrients, which focuses on these conditions, as well as normal pregnancy nutrition would be of immediate value to health care professionals, in providing a state-of-the-art summary of contemporary knowledge.

The objective of this proposed Special Issue on “Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy” is, firstly, therefore to select papers, which focus on nutrition and its role in maternal health outcomes in low, middle and higher-income countries. Following this, selected papers will evaluate nutrient requirements and  strategies to improve nutrition in pregnancy complicated by Obesity, Type 1 diabetes , GDM, CKD and PCOS. This Special Issue should provide  a useful resource for health care professionals, as well as a general readership.

On this topic, you are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Special Issue.

Prof. Lucilla Poston
Dr. Angela Flynn
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Pregnancy
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes in pregnancy
  • Renal disease in pregnancy
  • Antenatal interventions
  • Polycystic Ovary syndrome
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Low and Middle Income Countries
  • High Income Countries

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050579
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and
[...] Read more.
Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and fat distribution at birth, 1, 3, and 5 years. Mean energy intake was 2157 ± 375 kcal (n = 186) in early and 2208 ± 460 kcal (n = 167) in late gestation. The partition model showed mostly no significant associations between maternal diet in early pregnancy and offspring body composition. In late pregnancy, higher fat intake was negatively associated with clinical outcomes at birth, 1, and 5 years. Protein intake was negatively associated with BMI z score (zBMI) at 3 and 5 years. A 10 g increase in fiber was associated with an increase of 3.50 mm2 abdominal subcutaneous fat at 1, 172.49 g fat mass at 3, and 0.23 zBMI at 5 years. Results were largely comparable in the substitution model. An incremental increase in fat and protein at the expense of carbohydrates in late but not early pregnancy may be associated with lower fat mass up to 5 years. Findings require confirmation by additional prospective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040489
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015
[...] Read more.
Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81%)) were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5), low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of 25.4 (5.5–117.3), 17.8 (2.3–138.5), 4.0 (1.7–9.5), 3.3 (1.4–7.9), 2.8 (1.2–6.4), and 2.0 (1.1–3.5), respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5); 0.2 (0.1–0.6); 0.3 (0.1–0.9); and 0.4 (0.2–0.8), respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%). Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Open AccessArticle Adherence to the Caffeine Intake Guideline during Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030319
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aims of this study were to identify: (i) the proportion of women exceeding the caffeine intake guideline (>200 mg/day) during each trimester, accounting for point of pregnancy awareness; (ii) guideline adherence trajectories across pregnancy; (iii) maternal characteristics associated with trajectories; and (iv)
[...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to identify: (i) the proportion of women exceeding the caffeine intake guideline (>200 mg/day) during each trimester, accounting for point of pregnancy awareness; (ii) guideline adherence trajectories across pregnancy; (iii) maternal characteristics associated with trajectories; and (iv) association between adherence and growth restriction birth outcomes. Typical and maximal intake per consumption day for the first trimester (T1; pre- and post-pregnancy awareness), second (T2), and third trimester (T3) were recorded for a prospective cohort of pregnant Australian women with singleton births (n = 1232). Birth outcomes were birth weight, small for gestational age, and head circumference. For each period, participants were classified as abstinent, within (≤200 mg), or in excess (>200 mg). Latent class growth analyses identified guideline adherence trajectories; regression analyses identified associations between adherence in each trimester and birth outcomes. The percentage of participants who reported caffeine use declined between T1 pre- and post-pregnancy awareness (89% to 68%), and increased in T2 and T3 (79% and 80%). Trajectories were: ‘low consumption’ (22%): low probability of any use; ‘within-guideline’ (70%): high probability of guideline adherence; and ‘decreasing heavy use’ (8%): decreasing probability of excess use. The latter two groups were more likely to report alcohol and tobacco use, and less likely to report planning pregnancy and fertility problems. Exceeding the guideline T1 pre-pregnancy awareness was associated with lower birth weight after covariate control (b = −143.16, p = 0.011). Overall, high caffeine intake pre-pregnancy awareness occurs amongst a significant minority of women, and continued excess use post-pregnancy awareness is more common where pregnancy is unplanned. Excess caffeine consumption pre-pregnancy awareness may increase the risk for lower birth weight. Increasing awareness of the guideline in pregnancy and preconception health care may be warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Maternal Anemia and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050601
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
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Abstract
Objective: To systematically analyze the relationship between maternal anemia and low birth weight. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in the main databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and Lilacs), the gray literature, and the reference lists of selected articles.
[...] Read more.
Objective: To systematically analyze the relationship between maternal anemia and low birth weight. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in the main databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and Lilacs), the gray literature, and the reference lists of selected articles. Cohort and case-control studies that met the eligibility criteria were included in the review. There was no limitation on the language or date of publication. Article selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses with random effects, subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were performed. Publication bias was measured using Egger regression and visual funnel plot inspection. Results: A total of 7243 articles were found, of which 71 comprised the systematic review and 68 were included in the meta-analyses. Maternal anemia was associated with low birth weight with an adjusted OR: 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06–1.43) and I2: 58%. The meta-regressions confirmed that the sample size and the methodological quality may partially explain the statistical heterogeneity. Conclusions: Maternal anemia was considered a risk factor for low birth weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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