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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 42; doi:10.3390/nu10010042

Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Treating Pediatric Intestinal Diseases

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix”, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs GRANADA, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Granada, 18014 Granada, Spain
4
CIBEROBN (CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CB12/03/30028), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Pediatric Research and Metabolism Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), Av. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14010 Córdoba, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1298 KB, uploaded 5 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The pediatric population is continually at risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases. The treatment for infections, particularly gastrointestinal conditions, focuses on oral or intravenous rehydration, nutritional support and, in certain case, antibiotics. Over the past decade, the probiotics and synbiotics administration for the prevention and treatment of different acute and chronic infectious diseases has dramatically increased. Probiotic microorganisms are primarily used as treatments because they can stimulate changes in the intestinal microbial ecosystem and improve the immunological status of the host. The beneficial impact of probiotics is mediated by different mechanisms. These mechanisms include the probiotics’ capacity to increase the intestinal barrier function, to prevent bacterial transferation and to modulate inflammation through immune receptor cascade signaling, as well as their ability to regulate the expression of selected host intestinal genes. Nevertheless, with respect to pediatric intestinal diseases, information pertaining to these key mechanisms of action is scarce, particularly for immune-mediated mechanisms of action. In the present work, we review the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action of probiotics and synbiotics that affect the immune system. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; pediatric gastrointestinal infection; mechanism of action; intestinal microbiota; immune system probiotics; pediatric gastrointestinal infection; mechanism of action; intestinal microbiota; immune system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Plaza-Díaz, J.; Ruiz-Ojeda, F.J.; Gil-Campos, M.; Gil, A. Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Treating Pediatric Intestinal Diseases. Nutrients 2018, 10, 42.

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