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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 14; doi:10.3390/nu10010014

Physiological Translocation of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Pregnancy Contributes to the Composition of the Milk Microbiota in Mice

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Food Technology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), and Instituto Sanitario de Investigación Princesa, 28049 Madrid, Spain
These two authors share the first authorship.
Current address: Probisearch S.L.U., Tres Cantos, 28760 Madrid, Spain.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3209 KB, uploaded 23 December 2017]   |  


The human milk microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that seems to play a relevant role in the mother-to-infant transmission of microorganisms during early life. Bacteria present in human milk may arise from different sources, and recent studies suggest that at least some of them may be originally present in the maternal digestive tract and may reach the mammary gland through an endogenous route during pregnancy and lactation. The objective of this work was to elucidate whether some lactic acid bacteria are able to translocate and colonize the mammary gland and milk. For this purpose, two lactic acid bacteria strains (Lactococcus lactis MG1614 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS2) were transformed with a plasmid containing the lux genes; subsequently, the transformed strains were orally administered to pregnant mice. The murine model allowed the visualization, isolation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-detection of the transformed bacteria in different body locations, including mammary tissue and milk, reinforcing the hypothesis that physiological translocation of maternal bacteria during pregnancy and lactation may contribute to the composition of the mammary and milk microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; translocation; Lactobacillus salivarius; lux; bioluminescence; pregnancy; lactation human milk; translocation; Lactobacillus salivarius; lux; bioluminescence; pregnancy; lactation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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de Andrés, J.; Jiménez, E.; Chico-Calero, I.; Fresno, M.; Fernández, L.; Rodríguez, J.M. Physiological Translocation of Lactic Acid Bacteria during Pregnancy Contributes to the Composition of the Milk Microbiota in Mice. Nutrients 2018, 10, 14.

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