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Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4906-4917; doi:10.3390/nu6114906

Biochemical Validation of the Older Australian’s Food Frequency Questionnaire Using Carotenoids and Vitamin E

1,2,* , 1,2,3
,
1,2
and
1,2
1
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, New South Wales 2308, Australia
2
Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales 2305, Australia
3
John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales 2305, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Nutrient Intakes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [242 KB, uploaded 6 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Background: Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is important, as inaccurate and imprecise information may affect the association between dietary exposure and health outcomes. Objective: This study assessed the validity of the Older Australian’s FFQ against plasma carotenoids and Vitamin E. Methods: A random subsample (n = 150) of 2420 participants in the Hunter Community Study, aged 55–85 years, were included. Correlations between crude and energy-adjusted FFQ estimates of carotenoids, Vitamin E, and fruit and vegetables with corresponding biomarkers were determined. Percentages of participants correctly classified in the same quartile, and in the same ± 1 quartile, by the two methods were calculated. Results: Significant correlations (P < 0.05) were observed for α-carotene (r = 0.26–0.28), β-carotene (r = 0.21–0.25), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.21–0.23). Intakes of fruits and vegetables also showed similar correlations with these plasma carotenoids. Lycopene was only significantly correlated with fruit and vegetable intakes (r = 0.19–0.23). Weak correlations were observed for lutein + zeaxanthin (r = 0.12–0.16). For Vitamin E, significant correlation was observed for energy-adjusted FFQ estimate and biomarker (r = 0.20). More than 68% of individuals were correctly classified within the same or adjacent quartile, except for lutein + zeaxanthin. Conclusion: With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, the Older Australian’s FFQ provides reasonable rankings for individuals according to their carotenoids, Vitamin E, fruit and vegetable intakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: validation; food frequency questionnaire; biomarkers; carotenoids; vitamin E validation; food frequency questionnaire; biomarkers; carotenoids; vitamin E
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lai, J.S.; Attia, J.; McEvoy, M.; Hure, A.J. Biochemical Validation of the Older Australian’s Food Frequency Questionnaire Using Carotenoids and Vitamin E. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4906-4917.

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