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Special Issue "Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós

Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy-XARTA-INSA-UB, School of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cardiovascular; biomarkers; antioxidant activity; polyphenols; nutrition; anthocyanins; antioxidants; flavonoids; food; oxidative stress; resveratrol; nuts; free radicals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols are highly diverse bioactive compounds found in nature, with over 800 different chemical structures. Interest in phenolic compounds has increased steadily over the last decade, due to the numerous physiological properties ascribed to them. While polyphenols have been shown to protect against the development of a range of chronic diseases, studies have focused mainly on their role in protection against cardiovascular disease. The health properties attributed to the consumption of certain foods, such as red wine, cocoa, virgin olive oil, berries and green tea, are attributed, in part, to the presence of these compounds. This Special Issue aims to provide a forum for the dissemination of the latest information about the protective effects of polyphenols from different sources against the development of cardiovascular events or biochemical risk factors.

Prof. Dr. Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Flavonoids
  • Procyanidins
  • Tyrosol(s)
  • Resveratrol
  • Valerolactones
  • Blood pressure
  • Lipoproteins
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 439; doi:10.3390/molecules22040439
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant
[...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in Africa where the majority cannot afford orthodox medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Peripheral and Cerebral Resistance Arteries in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Rat: Effects of Stilbenoid Polyphenols
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 380; doi:10.3390/molecules22030380
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
PDF Full-text (2073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hypertension is associated with aberrant structure and mechanical properties of resistance arteries. We determined the effects of resveratrol, a non-flavonoid polyphenol found in foods such as red grapes, and structurally-similar analogues (pterostilbene and gnetol) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resistance arteries from
[...] Read more.
Hypertension is associated with aberrant structure and mechanical properties of resistance arteries. We determined the effects of resveratrol, a non-flavonoid polyphenol found in foods such as red grapes, and structurally-similar analogues (pterostilbene and gnetol) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resistance arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rat. SBP was elevated in 17-week-old SHHF vs. Sprague-Dawley rats (normotensive control; 194 ± 3 vs. 142 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.01) and was unaffected by resveratrol, pterostilbene, or gnetol (2.5 mg/kg/d). Geometry and mechanical properties of pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries and middle cerebral arteries were calculated from media and lumen dimensions measured at incremental intraluminal pressures. SHHF arteries exhibited remodeling which consisted of augmented media-to-lumen ratios, and this was attenuated by stilbenoid treatment. Compliance was significantly reduced in SHHF middle cerebral arteries but not mesenteric arteries vis-à-vis increased wall component stiffness; stilbenoid treatment failed to normalize compliance and wall component stiffness. Our data suggest that neither AMPK nor ERK mediate stilbenoid effects. In conclusion, we observed arterial bed-specific abnormalities, where mesenteric resistance arteries exhibited remodeling and cerebral arteries exhibited remodeling and stiffening. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and gnetol exhibited similar abilities to attenuate vascular alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Disparate Effects of Stilbenoid Polyphenols on Hypertrophic Cardiomyocytes In Vitro vs. in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Rat
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 204; doi:10.3390/molecules22020204
Received: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 1 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stilbenoids are bioactive polyphenols, and resveratrol (trans-3,5,40-trihydroxystilbene) is a representative stilbenoid that reportedly exerts cardioprotective actions. As resveratrol exhibits low oral bioavailability, we turned our attention to other stilbenoid compounds with a history of medicinal use and/or improved bioavailability. We determined the effects
[...] Read more.
Stilbenoids are bioactive polyphenols, and resveratrol (trans-3,5,40-trihydroxystilbene) is a representative stilbenoid that reportedly exerts cardioprotective actions. As resveratrol exhibits low oral bioavailability, we turned our attention to other stilbenoid compounds with a history of medicinal use and/or improved bioavailability. We determined the effects of gnetol (trans-3,5,20,60-tetrahydroxystilbene) and pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-40-hydroxystilbene) on cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro, gnetol and pterostilbene prevented endothelin-1-induced indicators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy including cell enlargement and protein synthesis. Gnetol and pterostilbene stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of AMPK, using compound C or shRNA knockdown,abolished these anti-hypertrophiceffects. In contrast,resveratrol, gnetol, nor pterostilbene reduced blood pressure or hypertrophy in the spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rat. In fact, AMPK levels were similar between Sprague-Dawley and SHHF rats whether treated by stilbenoids or not. These data suggest that the anti-hypertrophic actions of resveratrol (and other stilbenoids?) do not extend to the SHHF rat, which models heart failure superimposed on hypertension. Notably, SHHF rat hearts exhibited prolonged isovolumic relaxationtime(an indicator of diastolicdys function),and this was improved by stilbenoid treatment.In conclusion, stilbenoid-based treatment as a viable strategy to prevent pathological cardiac hypertrophy,a major risk factor for heart failure,may be context-dependent and requires furtherstudy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Actions of Quercetin, a Polyphenol, on Blood Pressure
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 209; doi:10.3390/molecules22020209
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Disorder of blood pressure control causes serious diseases in the cardiovascular system. This review focuses on the anti-hypertensive action of quercetin, a flavonoid, which is one of the polyphenols characterized as the compounds containing large multiples of phenol structural units, by varying the
[...] Read more.
Disorder of blood pressure control causes serious diseases in the cardiovascular system. This review focuses on the anti-hypertensive action of quercetin, a flavonoid, which is one of the polyphenols characterized as the compounds containing large multiples of phenol structural units, by varying the values of various blood pressure regulatory factors, such as vascular compliance, peripheral vascular resistance, and total blood volume via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. In addition to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions of quercetin, we especially describe a novel mechanism of quercetin’s action on the cytosolic Cl concentration ([Cl]c) and novel roles of the cytosolic Cl i.e.: (1) quercetin elevates [Cl]c by activating Na+-K+-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in renal epithelial cells contributing to Na+ reabsorption via the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC); (2) the quercetin-induced elevation of [Cl]c in renal epithelial cells diminishes expression of ENaC leading to a decrease in renal Na+ reabsorption; and (3) this reduction of ENaC-mediated Na+ reabsorption in renal epithelial cells drops volume-dependent elevated blood pressure. In this review, we introduce novel, unique mechanisms of quercetin’s anti-hypertensive action via activation of NKCC1 in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview Grape Polyphenols’ Effects in Human Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 68; doi:10.3390/molecules22010068
Received: 4 December 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 29 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals, has increased due to consumers’ interest in the relevance of food composition for human health. Considerable recent interest has focused on bioactive phenolic compounds in grape, as
[...] Read more.
The consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals, has increased due to consumers’ interest in the relevance of food composition for human health. Considerable recent interest has focused on bioactive phenolic compounds in grape, as they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-ageing and antimicrobial properties. Observational studies indicate that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods improves vascular health, thereby significantly reducing the risk of hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Other researchers have described the benefits of a grape polyphenol-rich diet for other types of maladies such as diabetes mellitus. This is a comprehensive review on the consumption of polyphenolic grape compounds, concerning their potential benefits for human health in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Disease)
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