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This paper was retracted on 25 March 2014, see Molecules 2014, 19(3), 3850.

Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4755-4769; doi:10.3390/molecules17044755

Dynamic Action of Carotenoids in Cardioprotection and Maintenance of Cardiac Health

1 Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014, India 2 Herbal & Indian Medicine Research Laboratory, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai 600 116, India 3 Cardiovascular Research Centre, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington 06030-1110, CT, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 28 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Oxidative stress has been considered universally and undeniably implicated in the pathogenesis of all major diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system. Oxidative stress activate transcriptional messengers, such as nuclear factor—κB, tangibly contributing to endothelial dysfunction, the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, irreversible damage after ischemic reperfusion, and even arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation. Evidence is rapidly accumulating to support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as intracellular signaling molecules. Despite this connection between oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are currently no recognized therapeutic interventions to address this important unmet need. Antioxidants that provide a broad, “upstream” approach via ROS/RNS quenching or free radical chain breaking seem an appropriate therapeutic option based on epidemiologic, dietary, and in vivo animal model data. Short-term dietary intervention trials suggest that diets rich in fruit and vegetable intake lead to improvements in coronary risk factors and reduce cardiovascular mortality. Carotenoids are such abundant, plant-derived, fat-soluble pigments that functions as antioxidants. They are stored in the liver or adipose tissue, and are lipid soluble by becoming incorporated into plasma lipoprotein particles during transport. For these reasons, carotenoids may represent one plausible mechanism by which fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This review paper outlines the role of carotenoids in maintaining cardiac health and cardioprotection mediated by several mechanisms including redox signaling.
Keywords: oxidative stress; ROS; RNS; antioxidants; carotenoids; cardiovascular disease oxidative stress; ROS; RNS; antioxidants; carotenoids; cardiovascular disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Agarwal, M.; Parameswari, R.P.; Vasanthi, H.R.; Das, D.K. Dynamic Action of Carotenoids in Cardioprotection and Maintenance of Cardiac Health. Molecules 2012, 17, 4755-4769.

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