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Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds
REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, Bragança 5301-855, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2011; in revised form: 28 January 2012 / Accepted: 3 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids
Abstract: The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%). This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.
Keywords: β-carotene; lutein; chlorophyll; spent coffee grounds; soil amendment; lettuce
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MDPI and ACS Style
Cruz, R.; Baptista, P.; Cunha, S.; Pereira, J.A.; Casal, S. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds. Molecules 2012, 17, 1535-1547.
Cruz R, Baptista P, Cunha S, Pereira JA, Casal S. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1535-1547.
Cruz, Rebeca; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, José Alberto; Casal, Susana. 2012. "Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1535-1547.