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Special Issue "Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. D. Hadjipavlou-Litina (Website)

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Phone: +302310997627
Interests: design; synthesis; bilogical evaluation; inflammation; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; COX and LOX inhibitors; QSAR

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cinnamic acid derivatives from natural and synthetic sources have attracted much attention due to their significant biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial activities). Recently, intensive research has been conducted on cinnamic acid hybrids, with the goal of creating new polyfunctional drugs based on them. Piplartin, an alkaloid and a trans-cinnamic acid derivative, which is isolated from Piper tuberculatum, has been shown to have antitumor and antiproliferative properties. A whole series of drugs has been created on the basis of cinnamic acid presenting antiallergic activity (e.g., Cinnarizine, Cinanserin, Tranilast).

Molecular hybridization consists of a molecular modification approach to obtain multifunctional ligands and drugs with better pharmacokinetic properties and the concomitant administration of two different agents. The design principle is aimed at combining the synergistic property of cinnamic acid with the sequestering activity of other biologically active chemical entities or molecules, so as to get compounds with better activities.

In this issue, we will present a number of several cinnamic hybrids, their syntheses, and biological evaluation, as well as reviews in related subjects.

Prof. D. Hadjipavlou-Litina
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • cinnamic acids
  • caffeic acid
  • inflammation
  • antioxidant activity
  • anticancer
  • conjugates
  • adducts
  • hybrids
  • multitarget

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Polyhydroxylated trans-Restricted 2-Arylcinnamic Acids
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2555-2575; doi:10.3390/molecules20022555
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of sixteen polyhydroxylated trans-restricted 2-arylcinnamic acid analogues 3ap were synthesized through a one-pot reaction between homophthalic anhydrides and various aromatic aldehydes, followed by treatment with BBr3. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds was confirmed [...] Read more.
A series of sixteen polyhydroxylated trans-restricted 2-arylcinnamic acid analogues 3ap were synthesized through a one-pot reaction between homophthalic anhydrides and various aromatic aldehydes, followed by treatment with BBr3. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds was confirmed by spectroscopic methods and the configuration around the double bond was unequivocally estimated by means of gated decoupling 13C-NMR spectra. It was shown that the trans-cinnamic acid fragment incorporated into the target compounds’ structure ensures the cis-configuration of the stilbene backbone and prevents further isomerization along the carbon–carbon double bond. The antioxidant activity of compounds 3ap was measured against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH) and superoxide (O2) radicals. The results obtained showed that the tested compounds possess higher activities than natural antioxidants such as protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid. Moreover, it was shown that a combination of two different and independently acting fragments of well-known pharmacological profiles into one covalently bonded hybrid molecule evoke a synergistic effect resulting in higher than expected activity. To rationalize the apparent antioxidant activity and to establish the mechanism of action, a SAR analysis and DFT quantum chemical computations were also performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest)
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Open AccessArticle Antiprotozoal Activity of (E)-Cinnamic N-Acylhydrazone Derivatives
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20374-20381; doi:10.3390/molecules191220374
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 29 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of 14 (E)-cinnamic N-acylhydrazone derivatives, designed through molecular hybridization between the (E)-1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-3-(4-bromophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one and (E)-3-hydroxy-N'-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-7-methoxy-2-naphthohydrazide, were tested for in vitro antiparasitic activity upon axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani and [...] Read more.
A series of 14 (E)-cinnamic N-acylhydrazone derivatives, designed through molecular hybridization between the (E)-1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-3-(4-bromophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one and (E)-3-hydroxy-N'-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)-7-methoxy-2-naphthohydrazide, were tested for in vitro antiparasitic activity upon axenic amastigote forms of Leishmania donovani and bloodstream forms of Trypamosoma brucei rhodesiense. The derivative (2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-N'-[(1E)-phenylmethylene]acrylohydrazide showed moderate antileishmanial activity (IC50 = 6.27 µM) when compared to miltefosine, the reference drug (IC50 = 0.348 µM). However, the elected compound showed an excellent selectivity index; in one case it was not cytotoxic against mammalian L-6 cells. The most active antitrypanosomal compound, the derivative (E)-N'-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cinnamohydrazide (IC50 = 1.93 µM), was cytotoxic against mammalian L-6 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest)
Open AccessArticle Multitarget Molecular Hybrids of Cinnamic Acids
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20197-20226; doi:10.3390/molecules191220197
Received: 27 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an attempt to synthesize potential new multitarget agents, 11 novel hybrids incorporating cinnamic acids and paracetamol, 4-/7-hydroxycoumarin, benzocaine, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol were synthesized. Three hybrids—2e, 2a, 2g—and 3b were found to be multifunctional agents. The [...] Read more.
In an attempt to synthesize potential new multitarget agents, 11 novel hybrids incorporating cinnamic acids and paracetamol, 4-/7-hydroxycoumarin, benzocaine, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol were synthesized. Three hybrids—2e, 2a, 2g—and 3b were found to be multifunctional agents. The hybrid 2e derived from the phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and m-acetamidophenol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition and analgesic activity (IC50 = 0.34 μΜ and 98.1%, whereas the hybrid 3b of bromobenzyloxycinnamic acid and hymechromone exhibited simultaneously good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 50 μΜ) and the highest anti-proteolytic activity (IC50= 5 μΜ). The hybrid 2a of phenyloxyphenyl acid with paracetamol showed a high analgesic activity (91%) and appears to be a promising agent for treating peripheral nerve injuries. Hybrid 2g which has an ester and an amide bond presents an interesting combination of anti-LOX and anti-proteolytic activity. The esters were found very potent and especially those derived from paracetamol and m-acetamidophenol. The amides follow. Based on 2D-structure–activity relationships it was observed that both steric and electronic parameters play major roles in the activity of these compounds. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that allosteric interactions might govern the LOX-inhibitor binding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Chlorogenic Acid on Melanogenesis of B16 Melanoma Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 12940-12948; doi:10.3390/molecules190912940
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the ester formed between caffeic acid and l-quinic acid, is a widespread phenolic compound. It is part of the human diet, found in foods such as coffee, apples, pears, etc. CGA is also was widely used in cosmetics, [...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the ester formed between caffeic acid and l-quinic acid, is a widespread phenolic compound. It is part of the human diet, found in foods such as coffee, apples, pears, etc. CGA is also was widely used in cosmetics, but the effects of CGA on melanogenesis are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the effects of CGA on cell proliferation, melanin content and tyrosinase of B16 murine melanoma cells. Additionally, the enzymatic reactions of CGA in B16 melanoma cells lytic solution were detected by UV spectrophotometry. Results showed CGA at 30 and 60 μM significantly suppresses cell proliferation. 8-MOP at 100 μM significantly promotes cell proliferation, but CGA can counter this. Incubated for 24 h, CGA (500 μM) improves melanogenesis while suppressing tyrosinase activity in B16 melanoma cells or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) co-incubated B16 melanoma cells. After 12 h, B16 melanoma cell treatment with CGA leads to an increase in melanin accumulation, however, after 48 h there is a decrease in melanin production which correlates broadly with a decrease in tyrosinase activity. CGA incubated with lytic solution 24 h turned brown at 37 °C. The formation of new products (with a maximum absorption at 295 nm) is associated with reduction of CGA (maximum absorption at 326 nm). Therefore, CGA has its two sidesroles in melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells. CGA is a likely a substrate of melanin, but the metabolic product(s) of CGA may suppress melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioinspired Syntheses of Dimeric Hydroxycinnamic Acids (Lignans) and Hybrids, Using Phenol Oxidative Coupling as Key Reaction, and Medicinal Significance Thereof
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19769-19835; doi:10.3390/molecules191219769
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 28 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4070 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lignans are mainly dimers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and reduced analogs thereof which are produced in Nature through phenol oxidative coupling (POC) as the primary C-C or C-O bond-forming reaction under the action of the enzymes peroxidases and laccases. They present a [...] Read more.
Lignans are mainly dimers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and reduced analogs thereof which are produced in Nature through phenol oxidative coupling (POC) as the primary C-C or C-O bond-forming reaction under the action of the enzymes peroxidases and laccases. They present a large structural variety and particularly interesting biological activities, therefore, significant efforts has been devoted to the development of efficient methodologies for the synthesis of lignans isolated from natural sources, analogs and hybrids with other biologically interesting small molecules. We summarize in the present review those methods which mimic Nature for the assembly of the most common lignan skeleta by using either enzymes or one-electron inorganic oxidants to effect POC of HCAs and derivatives, such as esters and amides, or cross-POC of pairs of HCAs or HCAs with 4-hydrocycinnamyl alcohols. We, furthermore, provide outlines of mechanistic schemes accounting for the formation of the coupled products and, where applicable, indicate their potential application in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest)
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Open AccessReview Natural Cinnamic Acids, Synthetic Derivatives and Hybrids with Antimicrobial Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19292-19349; doi:10.3390/molecules191219292
Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cinnamic Acids Hybrids with Biological Interest)
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