Special Issue "Titanium Alloys"

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A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mark T. Whittaker

Institute of Structural Materials, Bay Campus, Swansea University. SA1 8EN, Swansea, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Thermo-mechanical Fatigue; Creep; Fatigue Lifing; Ceramic Matrix Composites; Titanium Alloys; Nickel Based Superalloys

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although titanium was originally discovered in the 18th century, significant developments in the titanium industry only occurred in the middle of the 20th century. These changes resulted from the emergence of the gas turbine engine. Since that time, the aerospace sector has dominated worldwide titanium use; the metal has applications in both engines and airframe structures. Titanium has a highly desirable combination of properties: these include excellent corrosion resistance, a high strength to weight ratio, and good fatigue resistance. Such qualities enable extensive applications; only high extraction and processing costs restrict further implementation.

Although the aerospace industry faces challenges related to increasing operating temperatures and the development of polymer based composites, innovative solutions, including metal matrix composites and titanium aluminides, provide pathways for future development. Furthermore, improvements in extractive metallurgy and processing methods have made titanium-based alloys more accessible to alternative industries. Industries currently utilizing these materials include the sports, biomedical, and marine sectors.

As more traditional applications are supplemented by exciting new opportunities, it is clear that extensive research opportunities are likely to exist in the titanium industry for the foreseeable future.

Dr. M.T. Whittaker
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • extractive metallurgy processing
  • microstructure evolution
  • properties
  • intermetallics
  • MMCs
  • aerospace
  • biomedical

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Titanium Alloys
Metals 2015, 5(3), 1437-1439; doi:10.3390/met5031437
Received: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although originally discovered in the 18th century [1], the titanium industry did not experience any significant advancement until the middle of the 20th century through the development of the gas turbine engine [2]. Since then, the aerospace sector has dominated worldwide titanium use
[...] Read more.
Although originally discovered in the 18th century [1], the titanium industry did not experience any significant advancement until the middle of the 20th century through the development of the gas turbine engine [2]. Since then, the aerospace sector has dominated worldwide titanium use with applications in both engines and airframe structures [3]. The highly desirable combination of properties, which include excellent corrosion resistance, favourable strength to weight ratios, and an impressive resistance to fatigue, has led to an extensive range of applications [4], with only high extraction and processing costs still restricting further implementation. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Milling on the Fatigue Lifetime of a Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy
Metals 2015, 5(3), 1148-1162; doi:10.3390/met5031148
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present article focuses on the influence of machining on the fatigue life of a titanium alloy: Ti6Al4V. An experimental design was adopted in order to highlight the effects of machining parameters on surface integrity while generating very different surfaces with a view
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The present article focuses on the influence of machining on the fatigue life of a titanium alloy: Ti6Al4V. An experimental design was adopted in order to highlight the effects of machining parameters on surface integrity while generating very different surfaces with a view to subsequent fatigue testing (four point bending tests). Firstly, the impact of machining parameters on surface integrity was demonstrated. Then, the influence of surface integrity on fatigue lifetime was observed: no influence of the geometric and metallurgical parameters was observed. However, the mechanical parameter (e.g., residual stress) seemed to have a preponderant influence. To conclude, a machining plan of procedure was proposed to significantly improve the fatigue lifetime as compared with a reference industrial plan of procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Indium Content on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of Titanium Alloys
Metals 2015, 5(2), 850-862; doi:10.3390/met5020850
Received: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ti-xIn (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) alloys were prepared to investigate the effect of indium on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of titanium with the aim of understanding the relationship between phase/microstructure and various
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Ti-xIn (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) alloys were prepared to investigate the effect of indium on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior of titanium with the aim of understanding the relationship between phase/microstructure and various properties of Ti-xIn alloys. The Ti-xIn alloys exhibited a lamellar α-Ti structure at an indium content of up to 20 wt%. High-resolution TEM images of the Ti-xIn alloys revealed that all the systems contained a fine, acicular martensitic phase, which showed compositional fluctuations at the nanoscopic level. The mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-xIn alloys were sensitive to the indium content. The Vickers hardness increased as the In content increased because of solid solution strengthening. The Ti-xIn alloys exhibited superior oxidation resistance compared to commercially pure Ti (cp-Ti). Electrochemical results showed that the Ti-xIn alloys exhibited a similar corrosion resistance to cp-Ti. Among the alloys tested, Ti-10In showed a potential for use as a dental material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Hot Deformation Behavior of Ti-3.5Al-5Mo-6V-3Cr-2Sn-0.5Fe Alloy in α + β Field
Metals 2015, 5(1), 216-227; doi:10.3390/met5010216
Received: 10 January 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The deformation behavior of Ti-3.5Al-5Mo-6V-3Cr-2Sn-0.5Fe high strength β titanium alloy is systematically investigated by isothermal compression in α + β field with the deformation temperatures ranging from 1003 K to 1078 K, the strain rates ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 1 s
[...] Read more.
The deformation behavior of Ti-3.5Al-5Mo-6V-3Cr-2Sn-0.5Fe high strength β titanium alloy is systematically investigated by isothermal compression in α + β field with the deformation temperatures ranging from 1003 K to 1078 K, the strain rates ranging from 0.001 s−1 to 1 s−1 and the height reduction is around 50%. Essentially, the flow stress-strain curve of isothermal compression in α + β field exhibits a flow softening feature when the strain rate is higher than 0.1 s−1 as while it exhibits a steady-state feature as the strain rate is lower than 0.1 s−1. The peak stress increases with a decrease in deformation temperature and the increase of strain rate. The activation energy for deformation in α + β field was calculated and the average activation energy of 271.1 kJ/mol. The microstructure observation reveals that the isothermal deformation in the α + β field of the alloy is mainly controlled by the dynamic recovery mechanism accompanied with the secondary dynamic recrystallizitation of β phase. The α phase shows an obvious pinning effect for the movement of dislocations. During deformation, the α phase was elongated and fragmented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Titanium Matrix Composite Ti/TiN Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding
Metals 2015, 5(1), 54-69; doi:10.3390/met5010054
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 9 January 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (3082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high power direct diode laser, emitting in the range of near infrared radiation at wavelength 808–940 nm, was applied to produce a titanium matrix composite on a surface layer of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by laser surface gas nitriding. The nitrided surface layers
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A high power direct diode laser, emitting in the range of near infrared radiation at wavelength 808–940 nm, was applied to produce a titanium matrix composite on a surface layer of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by laser surface gas nitriding. The nitrided surface layers were produced as single stringer beads at different heat inputs, different scanning speeds, and different powers of laser beam. The influence of laser nitriding parameters on the quality, shape, and morphology of the surface layers was investigated. It was found that the nitrided surface layers consist of titanium nitride precipitations mainly in the form of dendrites embedded in the titanium alloy matrix. The titanium nitrides are produced as a result of the reaction between molten Ti and gaseous nitrogen. Solidification and subsequent growth of the TiN dendrites takes place to a large extent at the interface of the molten Ti and the nitrogen gas atmosphere. The direction of TiN dendrites growth is perpendicular to the surface of molten Ti. The roughness of the surface layers depends strongly on the heat input of laser nitriding and can be precisely controlled. In spite of high microhardness up to 2400 HV0.2, the surface layers are crack free. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of SiO2 Films for Adhesion Promoting Layers on Titanium
Metals 2014, 4(4), 639-646; doi:10.3390/met4040639
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper evaluates the deposition of silica layers at atmospheric pressure as a pretreatment for the structural bonding of titanium (Ti6Al4V, Ti15V3Cr3Sn3Al) in comparison to an anodizing process (NaTESi process). The
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This paper evaluates the deposition of silica layers at atmospheric pressure as a pretreatment for the structural bonding of titanium (Ti6Al4V, Ti15V3Cr3Sn3Al) in comparison to an anodizing process (NaTESi process). The SiO2 film was deposited using the LARGE plasma source, a linearly extended DC arc plasma source and applying hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as a precursor. The morphology of the surface was analyzed by means of SEM, while the characterization of the chemical composition of deposited plasma layers was done by XPS and FTIR. The long-term durability of bonded samples was evaluated by means of a wedge test in hot/wet condition. The almost stoichiometric SiO2 film features a good long-term stability and a high bonding strength compared to the films produced with the wet-chemical NaTESi process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)
Open AccessArticle On the Physics of Machining Titanium Alloys: Interactions between Cutting Parameters, Microstructure and Tool Wear
Metals 2014, 4(3), 335-358; doi:10.3390/met4030335
Received: 9 May 2014 / Revised: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current work deals with the analysis of mechanisms involved during the machining process of titanium alloys. Two different materials were chosen for the study: Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-55531. The objective was to understand the effect of all cutting parameters on the tool wear
[...] Read more.
The current work deals with the analysis of mechanisms involved during the machining process of titanium alloys. Two different materials were chosen for the study: Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-55531. The objective was to understand the effect of all cutting parameters on the tool wear behavior and stability of the cutting process. The investigations were focused on the mechanisms of the chip formation process and their interaction with tool wear. At the microstructure scale, the analysis confirms the intense deformation of the machined surface and shows a texture modification. As the cutting speed increases, cutting forces and temperature show different progressions depending on the considered microstructure (Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-55531 alloy). Results show for both materials that the wear process is facilitated by the high cutting temperature and the generation of high stresses. The analysis at the chip-tool interface of friction and contact nature (sliding or sticking contact) shows that machining Ti55531 often exhibits an abrasion wear process on the tool surface, while the adhesion and diffusion modes followed by the coating delamination process are the main wear modes when machining the usual Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)

Review

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Open AccessReview Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite
Metals 2014, 4(4), 549-569; doi:10.3390/met4040549
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 19 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with
[...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC) solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo properties, electrical semiconductors, stress transfer, additives with low thermal PMC processing and new coating possibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.


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