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Special Issue "Failure Analysis in Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Robert Lancaster

Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 1792 295965
Fax: +44 1792 295693
Interests: miniaturised characterisation; thermo-mechanical fatigue; nickel superalloys (single crystals, polycrystalline materials); titanium alloys; failure analysis; non-destructive evaluation; fatigue; fatigue lifing; advanced manufacturing methods
Guest Editor
Dr. Mark T. Whittaker

Institute of Structural Materials, Bay Campus, Swansea University. SA1 8EN, Swansea, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Thermo-mechanical Fatigue; Creep; Fatigue Lifing; Ceramic Matrix Composites; Titanium Alloys; Nickel Based Superalloys

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Failure analysis of engineering materials is critical to industrial applications, not only to provide answers as to why in-service failures may have occurred, but, more importantly, to enable evolution towards better products. Failure analysis may encompass a range of techniques, from simple optical examination to basic microscopy or even high performance scanning electron microscopy. It may also draw on a wide range of established or innovative techniques to describe materials parameters, such as surface finish, residual stress, grain size, etc. The aim may be to detect and evaluate localized reasons for a single engineering failure, or to quantify and understand repetition in failures, which could be related to underlying material behavior issues or mistakes made in the design phase of a particular component or part. Clearly however, as trends continue in a range of sectors towards higher performance/cost materials, the field of failure analysis will continue act as a critical enabler towards improved design and performance. For this Special Issue we encourage authors to publish research articles or comprehensive reviews on all topics relating to failure analysis of materials.

Dr. Mark T. Whittaker
Dr. Robert Lancaste
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Failure analysis
  • microscopy
  • fatigue
  • reliability
  • creep
  • rupture
  • overload

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Fatigue of Ti6Al4V Structural Health Monitoring Systems Produced by Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2016, 9(2), 106; doi:10.3390/ma9020106
Received: 20 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 11 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM
[...] Read more.
Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM are capable candidates for applications in aerospace and industrial fields due to their fracture resistance, fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, structural health monitoring (SHM) system technologies are promising and requested from the industry. SHM systems can monitor the integrity of a structure and during the last decades the research has primarily been influenced by bionic engineering. In that aspect a new philosophy for SHM has been developed: the so-called effective structural health monitoring (eSHM) system. The current system uses the design freedom provided by AM. The working principle of the system is based on crack detection by means of a network of capillaries that are integrated in a structure. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the functionality of Ti6Al4V produced by the SLM process in the novel SHM system and to confirm that the eSHM system can successfully detect cracks in SLM components. In this study four-point bending fatigue tests on Ti6Al4V SLM specimens with an integrated SHM system were conducted. Fractographic analysis was performed after the final failure, while finite element simulations were used in order to determine the stress distribution in the capillary region and on the component. It was proven that the SHM system does not influence the crack initiation behavior during fatigue. The results highlight the effectiveness of the eSHM on SLM components, which can potentially be used by industrial and aerospace applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Rare Earth Metals on the Microstructure of Al-Si Based Alloys
Materials 2016, 9(1), 45; doi:10.3390/ma9010045
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was performed on A356 alloy [Al-7 wt %Si 0.0.35 wt %Mg]. To that La and Ce were added individually or combined up to 1.5 wt % each. The results show that these rare earth elements affect only the alloy melting
[...] Read more.
The present study was performed on A356 alloy [Al-7 wt %Si 0.0.35 wt %Mg]. To that La and Ce were added individually or combined up to 1.5 wt % each. The results show that these rare earth elements affect only the alloy melting temperature with no marked change in the temperature of Al-Si eutectic precipitation. Additionally, rare earth metals have no modification effect up to 1.5 wt %. In addition, La and Ce tend to react with Sr leading to modification degradation. In order to achieve noticeable modification of eutectic Si particles, the concentration of rare earth metals should exceed 1.5 wt %, which simultaneously results in the precipitation of a fairly large volume fraction of insoluble intermetallics. The precipitation of these complex intermetallics is expected to have a negative effect on the alloy performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Comparison of Simple Methods to Incorporate Material Temperature Dependency in the Green’s Function Method for Estimating Transient Thermal Stresses in Thick-Walled Power Plant Components
Materials 2016, 9(1), 26; doi:10.3390/ma9010026
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt “two-shifting” operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal
[...] Read more.
The threat of thermal fatigue is an increasing concern for thermal power plant operators due to the increasing tendency to adopt “two-shifting” operating procedures. Thermal plants are likely to remain part of the energy portfolio for the foreseeable future and are under societal pressures to generate in a highly flexible and efficient manner. The Green’s function method offers a flexible approach to determine reference elastic solutions for transient thermal stress problems. In order to simplify integration, it is often assumed that Green’s functions (derived from finite element unit temperature step solutions) are temperature independent (this is not the case due to the temperature dependency of material parameters). The present work offers a simple method to approximate a material’s temperature dependency using multiple reference unit solutions and an interpolation procedure. Thermal stress histories are predicted and compared for realistic temperature cycles using distinct techniques. The proposed interpolation method generally performs as well as (if not better) than the optimum single Green’s function or the previously-suggested weighting function technique (particularly for large temperature increments). Coefficients of determination are typically above 0 . 96 , and peak stress differences between true and predicted datasets are always less than 10 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Failure Progress of 3D Reinforced GFRP Laminate during Static Bending, Evaluated by Means of Acoustic Emission and Vibrations Analysis
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8751-8767; doi:10.3390/ma8125490
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
PDF Full-text (5849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work aimed to assess the failure progress in a glass fiber-reinforced polymer laminate with a 3D-woven and (as a comparison) plain-woven reinforcement, during static bending, using acoustic emission signals. The innovative method of the separation of the signal coming from the fiber
[...] Read more.
The work aimed to assess the failure progress in a glass fiber-reinforced polymer laminate with a 3D-woven and (as a comparison) plain-woven reinforcement, during static bending, using acoustic emission signals. The innovative method of the separation of the signal coming from the fiber fracture and the one coming from the matrix fracture with the use of the acoustic event’s energy as a criterion was applied. The failure progress during static bending was alternatively analyzed by evaluation of the vibration signal. It gave a possibility to validate the results of the acoustic emission. Acoustic emission, as well as vibration signal analysis proved to be good and effective tools for the registration of failure effects in composite laminates. Vibration analysis is more complicated methodologically, yet it is more precise. The failure progress of the 3D laminate is “safer” and more beneficial than that of the plain-woven laminate. It exhibits less rapid load capacity drops and a higher fiber effort contribution at the moment of the main laminate failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Advances on the Failure Analysis of the Dam—Foundation Interface of Concrete Dams
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8255-8278; doi:10.3390/ma8125442
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure analysis of the dam-foundation interface in concrete dams is characterized by complexity, uncertainties on models and parameters, and a strong non-linear softening behavior. In practice, these uncertainties are dealt with a well-structured mixture of experience, best practices and prudent, conservative design approaches
[...] Read more.
Failure analysis of the dam-foundation interface in concrete dams is characterized by complexity, uncertainties on models and parameters, and a strong non-linear softening behavior. In practice, these uncertainties are dealt with a well-structured mixture of experience, best practices and prudent, conservative design approaches based on the safety factor concept. Yet, a sound, deep knowledge of some aspects of this failure mode remain unveiled, as they have been offset in practical applications by the use of this conservative approach. In this paper we show a strategy to analyse this failure mode under a reliability-based approach. The proposed methodology of analysis integrates epistemic uncertainty on spatial variability of strength parameters and data from dam monitoring. The purpose is to produce meaningful and useful information regarding the probability of occurrence of this failure mode that can be incorporated in risk-informed dam safety reviews. In addition, relationships between probability of failure and factors of safety are obtained. This research is supported by a more than a decade of intensive professional practice on real world cases and its final purpose is to bring some clarity, guidance and to contribute to the improvement of current knowledge and best practices on such an important dam safety concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Very High Cycle Fatigue Failure Analysis and Life Prediction of Cr-Ni-W Gear Steel Based on Crack Initiation and Growth Behaviors
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8338-8354; doi:10.3390/ma8125459
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unexpected failures of structural materials in very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime have been a critical issue in modern engineering design. In this study, the VHCF property of a Cr-Ni-W gear steel was experimentally investigated under axial loading with the stress ratio
[...] Read more.
The unexpected failures of structural materials in very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime have been a critical issue in modern engineering design. In this study, the VHCF property of a Cr-Ni-W gear steel was experimentally investigated under axial loading with the stress ratio of R = −1, and a life prediction model associated with crack initiation and growth behaviors was proposed. Results show that the Cr-Ni-W gear steel exhibits the constantly decreasing S-N property without traditional fatigue limit, and the fatigue strength corresponding to 109 cycles is around 485 MPa. The inclusion-fine granular area (FGA)-fisheye induced failure becomes the main failure mechanism in the VHCF regime, and the local stress around the inclusion play a key role. By using the finite element analysis of representative volume element, the local stress tends to increase with the increase of elastic modulus difference between inclusion and matrix. The predicted crack initiation life occupies the majority of total fatigue life, while the predicted crack growth life is only accounts for a tiny fraction. In view of the good agreement between the predicted and experimental results, the proposed VHCF life prediction model involving crack initiation and growth can be acceptable for inclusion-FGA-fisheye induced failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Surface Irregularity Factor as a Parameter to Evaluate the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7524-7535; doi:10.3390/ma8115407
Received: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents an optical non-contact technique to evaluate the fatigue damage state of CFRP structures measuring the irregularity factor of the surface. This factor includes information about surface topology and can be measured easily on field, by techniques such as optical perfilometers.
[...] Read more.
This work presents an optical non-contact technique to evaluate the fatigue damage state of CFRP structures measuring the irregularity factor of the surface. This factor includes information about surface topology and can be measured easily on field, by techniques such as optical perfilometers. The surface irregularity factor has been correlated with stiffness degradation, which is a well-accepted parameter for the evaluation of the fatigue damage state of composite materials. Constant amplitude fatigue loads (CAL) and realistic variable amplitude loads (VAL), representative of real in- flight conditions, have been applied to “dog bone” shaped tensile specimens. It has been shown that the measurement of the surface irregularity parameters can be applied to evaluate the damage state of a structure, and that it is independent of the type of fatigue load that has caused the damage. As a result, this measurement technique is applicable for a wide range of inspections of composite material structures, from pressurized tanks with constant amplitude loads, to variable amplitude loaded aeronautical structures such as wings and empennages, up to automotive and other industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Numerical Analysis of the Bending Properties of Cathay Poplar Glulam
Materials 2015, 8(10), 7059-7073; doi:10.3390/ma8105362
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
PDF Full-text (2820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the formulae and finite element analysis models for predicting the Modulus of Elastic (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) of Cathay poplar finger-jointed glulam. The formula of the MOE predicts the MOE of Cathay poplar glulam glued with one-component polyurethane
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the formulae and finite element analysis models for predicting the Modulus of Elastic (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) of Cathay poplar finger-jointed glulam. The formula of the MOE predicts the MOE of Cathay poplar glulam glued with one-component polyurethane precisely. Three formulae are used to predict the MOR, and Equation (12) predicts the MOR of Cathay poplar glulam precisely. The finite element analysis simulation results of both the MOE and MOR are similar to the experimental results. The predicted results of the finite element analysis are shown to be more accurate than those of the formulae, because the finite element analysis considers the glue layers, but the formulae do not. Three types of typical failure modes due to bending were summarized. The bending properties of Cathay poplar glulam were compared to those of Douglas fir glulam. The results show that Cathay poplar glulam has a lower stiffness, but a marginally higher strength. One-component polyurethane adhesive is shown to be more effective than resorcinol formaldehyde resin adhesive for Cathay poplar glulam. This study shows that Cathay poplar has the potential to be a glulam material in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of a Nickel-Base Superalloy
Materials 2015, 8(9), 6179-6194; doi:10.3390/ma8095299
Received: 23 August 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study of fatigue behaviors for nickel-base superalloys is very significant because fatigue damage results in serious consequences. In this paper, two kinds of heat treatment procedures (Pro.I and Pro.II) were taken to investigate the effect of heat treatment on microstructures and fatigue
[...] Read more.
The study of fatigue behaviors for nickel-base superalloys is very significant because fatigue damage results in serious consequences. In this paper, two kinds of heat treatment procedures (Pro.I and Pro.II) were taken to investigate the effect of heat treatment on microstructures and fatigue behaviors of a nickel-base superalloy. Fatigue behaviors were studied through total strain controlled mode at 650 °C. Manson-Coffin relationship and three-parameter power function were used to predict fatigue life. A good link between the cyclic/fatigue behavior and microscopic studies was established. The cyclic deformation mechanism and fatigue mechanism were discussed. The results show that the fatigue resistance significantly drops with the increase of total strain amplitudes. Manson-Coffin relationship can well predict the fatigue life for total strain amplitude from 0.5% to 0.8%. The fatigue resistance is related with heat treatment procedures. The fatigue resistance performance of Pro.I is better than that of Pro.II. The cyclic stress response behaviors are closely related to the changes of the strain amplitudes. The peak stress of the alloy gradually increases with the increase of total strain amplitudes. The main fracture mechanism is inhomogeneous deformation and the different interactions between dislocations and γ′ precipitates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions
Materials 2015, 8(9), 6029-6042; doi:10.3390/ma8095290
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the
[...] Read more.
This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH)3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss), degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle A Model for Determining Strength for Embedded Elliptical Crack in Ultra-high-temperature Ceramics
Materials 2015, 8(8), 5018-5027; doi:10.3390/ma8085018
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fracture strength model applied at room temperature for embedded elliptical crack in brittle solid was obtained. With further research on the effects of various physical mechanisms on material strength, a thermo-damage strength model for ultra-high-temperature ceramics was applied to each temperature phase.
[...] Read more.
A fracture strength model applied at room temperature for embedded elliptical crack in brittle solid was obtained. With further research on the effects of various physical mechanisms on material strength, a thermo-damage strength model for ultra-high-temperature ceramics was applied to each temperature phase. Fracture strength of TiC and the changing trends with elliptical crack shape variations under different temperatures were studied. The study showed that under low temperature, the strength is sensitive to the crack shape variation; as the temperature increases, the sensitivities become smaller. The size of ellipse’s minor axes has great effect on the material strength when the ratio of ellipse’s minor and major axes is lower than 0.5, even under relatively high temperatures. The effect of the minor axes of added particle on material properties thus should be considered under this condition. As the crack area is set, the fracture strength decreases firstly and then increases with the increase of ratio of ellipse’s minor and major axes, and the turning point is 0.5. It suggests that for the added particles the ratio of ellipse’s minor and major axes should not be 0.5. All conclusions significantly coincided with the results obtained by using the finite element software ABAQUS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)
Open AccessArticle Development and Assessment of a New Empirical Model for Predicting Full Creep Curves
Materials 2015, 8(7), 4582-4592; doi:10.3390/ma8074582
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper details the development and assessment of a new empirical creep model that belongs to the limited ranks of models reproducing full creep curves. The important features of the model are that it is fully standardised and is universally applicable. By standardising,
[...] Read more.
This paper details the development and assessment of a new empirical creep model that belongs to the limited ranks of models reproducing full creep curves. The important features of the model are that it is fully standardised and is universally applicable. By standardising, the user no longer chooses functions but rather fits one set of constants only. Testing it on 7 contrasting materials, reproducing 181 creep curves we demonstrate its universality. New model and Theta Projection curves are compared to one another using an assessment tool developed within this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Creep-Fatigue Failure Diagnosis
Materials 2015, 8(11), 7757-7769; doi:10.3390/ma8115418
Received: 22 October 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 16 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure diagnosis invariably involves consideration of both associated material condition and the results of a mechanical analysis of prior operating history. This Review focuses on these aspects with particular reference to creep-fatigue failure diagnosis. Creep-fatigue cracking can be due to a spectrum of
[...] Read more.
Failure diagnosis invariably involves consideration of both associated material condition and the results of a mechanical analysis of prior operating history. This Review focuses on these aspects with particular reference to creep-fatigue failure diagnosis. Creep-fatigue cracking can be due to a spectrum of loading conditions ranging from pure cyclic to mainly steady loading with infrequent off-load transients. These require a range of mechanical analysis approaches, a number of which are reviewed. The microstructural information revealing material condition can vary with alloy class. In practice, the detail of the consequent cracking mechanism(s) can be camouflaged by oxidation at high temperatures, although the presence of oxide on fracture surfaces can be used to date events leading to failure. Routine laboratory specimen post-test examination is strongly recommended to characterise the detail of deformation and damage accumulation under known and well-controlled loading conditions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of failure diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Analysis in Materials)

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