Special Issue "Liquid Metals"


A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2014

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Jose Caturla
Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
E-Mail: MJ.Caturla@ua.es
Interests: modelling materials at the atomic scale; molecular dynamics; kinetic Monte Carlo; modeling materials behavior far from equilibrium; irradiation andradiation damage of materials; shock propagation at the atomic scale; liquid-surface interactions; mechanical behavior of nanoscale systems

Guest Editor
Dr. Enrique Louis
Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
E-Mail: enrique.louis@ua.es
Interests: condensed matter theory; physical metallurgy; strongly correlated systems; organic conducting materials; model Hamiltonians; transport through molecules and nano-contacts; metal and graphite based composites showing high thermal performance; surface tension of metals and alloys

Guest Editor
Dr. Jose Miguel Molina
Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Ap. 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
E-Mail: jmmj@ua.es
Interests: wettability at high temperatures; metal-ceramic interfaces; surface tension of metals; metal matrix composite materials: processing and characterization; composites of high thermal conductivity; metallic foams; magnesium foams; carbon foams

Guest Editor
Prof. Jian-Zhong Jiang
International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou, China
E-Mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn
Interests: disordered metals, including liquids and amorphous solids, from designing, characterization to properties; atomic structure, phase transformation, mechanical behavior of disordered metals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this special issue is to provide the most recent information on classical aspects of liquid metals and, at the same time, highlight recent discoveries that have greatly broadened the scope of technological applications of these materials. It is desirable that the issue starts with an article gathering most recent data on the main properties of liquid metals (free energy, viscosity, density, surface tension, etc.). This could be followed by classical articles of critical relevance, e.g., the structure of liquid metals. The combined use of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations is enabling investigation of the finer details of the structure of liquid metals. For instance, it has been found that in some liquid metals the inter–atomic distance contracts on heating, while at the same time coordination decreases. Improvements in understanding the physics of liquid metals are to a large extent due to the powerful theoretical tools now available to scientists. By this, we mainly refer to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. An article on the fundamentals of this technique will be included in the special issue. Surface tension and wetting at metal/ceramic interfaces (experimental and theoretical) is an ongoing field of fundamental research with important technological implications. One issue which is not yet fully understood is the positive temperature coefficient of surface tension as shown by some liquid metals. Finally an article on liquid mercury will be welcome.

As regards recent discoveries, the most outstanding is perhaps the development of gallium alloys which are liquid at room temperature, and, due to the oxide layer covering the surface, maintain some “stiffness”. This has opened the possibility of 3D printing with liquid metals. A variety of families of liquid metallic alloys that form amorphous materials when solidified are expected to give rise to revolutionary technologies. The study of liquid metals under microgravity conditions is shedding light on several key aspects of solidification. The use of liquid metal solutions to produce greener crystalline silicon is expected to provide a practical way to produce this old but still essential material. The study of turbulent convection in liquid metals is becoming increasingly relevant in the field of Geophysics. A nano liquid metal is a suspension of liquid metal and its alloy containing nanometer-sized particles. Nano liquid metal at room temperature and its alloys were first introduced in the area of cooling high heat flux devices, which has now become a commercial reality. However, their applications are not reserved to in chip cooling but also can be extended to waste heat recovery, kinetic energy harvesting, thermal interface material, etc. This is mainly due to their diverse properties, such as the low melting point, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as other additional physical or chemical properties. Articles on these hot topics are invited for inclusion in this special issue.

Dr. Maria Jose Caturla
Dr. Enrique Louis
Dr. Jose Miguel Molina
Prof. Jian-Zhong Jiang
Guest Editors


Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


  • structure of liquid metals.
  • ab-initio molecular dynamics calculations.
  • interfacial properties: wetting and surface tension.
  • positive surface tension temperature coefficient.
  • metallic gallium alloys liquid at room temperature (3d printing)
  • most outstanding families of liquid metal alloys: a revolutionary technology.
  • liquid metals under microgravity conditions.
  • use of liquid metals solutions to produce greener crystalline silicon.
  • geophysics: turbulent convection in liquid metals
  • nano liquid metals

Published Papers (2 papers)

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p. 465-476
by ,  and
Metals 2014, 4(4), 465-476; doi:10.3390/met4040465
Received: 1 August 2014; in revised form: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Metals)
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p. 359-387
Metals 2014, 4(3), 359-387; doi:10.3390/met4030359
Received: 30 April 2014; in revised form: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
The Promising Features of New Nano Liquid Metals—The Liquid Sodium Containing Titanium Nano Particles(LSnanop)
Authors: Toshio Itami, Jun-ichi Saito, and Kuniaki Ara
Affiliation: Inovative Technology Research Group, FBR System Technology Development Unit, Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393, Japan
Abstract: Recently new kind of suspension liquids has been developed by dispersing titanium particles of nanometer size in liquid sodium. This nano liquid metals, liquid sodium containing nanoparticles of titanium (LSnanop), shows a striking feature, namely the high chemical activity of liquid sodium is remarkably suppressed by the effect of the addition of titanium nanoparticles. For example, the heat of dissolution to water of LSnanop is 20% smaller than that of liquid sodium. This decrease is concluded to be derived from the existence of cohesive energy of LSnanop. So far as authors know, the cohesive energy of dispersion liquids was for the first time found experimentally by the thermal analysis. In addition, the burning duration of LSnanop is far shorter than the case of liquid sodium. The physicochemical properties, cohesive energy, volume, viscosity, and surface tension are also discussed from the fundamental point of view. It has been found that the LSnanop as suspension liquids shows a remarkable stability due to the cohesive energy, Coulomb coating in addition to the mechanism of Brownian motion. Because of the freedom from the mutual solubility, it is straight forward to develop the variety of new kind of similar nano liquid metals to the LSnanop by the combination of medium liquid metals and dispersed nanoparticle materials. Promising possibilities, including the nanoparticle size effects, are also discussed.

Title: Laser driven compression to investigate shock-induced melting of metals
Authors: T. de Rességuier 1 D. Loison 2 A. Dragon 1 E. Lescoute 3
Affiliations: 1 Institut PPRIME, CNRS - ENSMA - Université de Poitiers, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex, France
2 Institut de Physique de Rennes, CNRS - Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
3 CEA-DAM-DIF, 91297 Arpajon, France
: High pressure shock compression induces a large temperature increase due to the dissipation within the shock front. Hence, a solid sample subjected to intense shock loading can melt, partially or fully, either on compression or upon release from the shocked state. In particular, such melting is expected to affect drastically damage and fragmentation processes following shock propagation. In this paper, we show that laser driven shock experiments can provide original means to investigate high pressure melting of metals at high strain rates, which is an issue of key interest for various engineering applications as well as for geophysics. After a short description of experimental and analytical tools, we briefly review some former results reported in tin, then we present more recent observations in aluminum and iron.

Last update: 2 September 2014

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