Special Issue "Bio-Inspired Applications of Composites"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)
Prof. Andrew Ruys
Director of Biomedical Engineering,University of Sydney,Sydney, NSW, Australia
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Interests: biomaterials; bioceramics; ceramics; hydroxyapatite; alumina; ZTA (zirconia toughened alumina); DLC (diamond-like carbon); fibre-reinforced ceramics; porous materials; scaffolds; tissue engineering; bioactive glasses; electrophoretic deposition; bionic feedthroughs; bioactive coatings; DLC coatings; drug delivery
Composite materials are comprised of two or more distinct phases, in such a way that the two phases are complementary to one another such that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Most composites are homogenous, such as nanocomposites (e.g., zirconia-toughened-alumina (ZTA)) and fiber-reinforced composites (e.g., fiberglass, fiber-reinforced ceramics). Some composites are macroscopic in nature, such as honeycomb wing panels, and reinforced concrete. Some composites are not homogenous in composition, for example, one of the most remarkable bioinspired materials is inspired by bamboo—a class of composite materials known as functionally-graded materials (FGMs), which are typically metal-ceramic FGMs, in which the composition grades gradually from the hard refractory ceramic side to the tough ductile metal side, inspired by the functional grading of bamboo.
Biomaterials relates to the study of biocompatible materials used for biomedical applications. It involves, not only synthetic materials (e.g., biometals, biopolymers, bioceramics, and biocomposites), but also biological materials (e.g., proteins, cells, natural tissues, etc.). Biomaterials research encompasses various topics including: Materials synthesis and characterization, surface modification, biostability and biodegradation, and cell-material and/or tissue-implant interactions. Typical composite biomaterials include, but are not limited to, nano-biomaterials, smart biomaterials, hybrid biomaterials, nano-biocomposites, and hierarchically porous biomaterials.
Bioinspired materials involve taking inspiration from nature in the development of novel materials. Many biologically-inspired materials are biomaterials, i.e., materials used in medical devices. Biomaterials are used in a wide range of medical devices from joint replacements to heart pacemakers. There is a huge range of biomaterials in commercial use today, and many more under development. Most of the established biomaterials are pure metals polymers or ceramics, i.e., not composites, for example cobalt-chrome, titanium, platinum, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, alumina ceramics, and calcium phosphate ceramics. However, composite biomaterials represent the cutting-edge for the future of biomaterials. One of those at the forefront is the nanocomposite zirconia-toughened-alumina (ZTA). Collagen-reinforced hydroxyapatite as a bone analog is another. There are many more.
Not all biologically-inspired composite materials are biomaterials. This Special Issue is concerned with both composite biomaterials, such as ZTA, and composite advanced engineering materials, such as honeycomb wing sections. Bioinspiration involves the study and mimicking of natural processes, not only in the design of new materials, but is also in the understanding of the mechanisms by which natural materials achieve their material properties, from the nanostructure of life-forms and tissues, right up to the micro and macrostructure of natural biological structures.
Contributions to this Special Issue are invited along all of the associated thematic areas: Composite biomaterials, composite advanced engineering materials, theory and analysis of bioinspiration mechanisms underlying composites, and specific applications of bioinspired composite materials. Ideally, contributions to this Special Issue will combine one or more of these themes.
Prof. Dr. Andrew Ruys
Manuscript Submission Information
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- Fiber-reinforced composites
- Functionally graded materials (FGMs)
- Smart materials