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Special Issue "Advances and Applications of Nano-antimicrobial Treatments"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mauro Pollini

University of Salento Dept. Engineering for Innovation Via Monteroni 73100 Lecce, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: silver; antibacterial; biofilm; coatings; advanced medical devices; nanocoatings
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alessandro Sannino

Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Edificio Corpo O, via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Federica Paladini

Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: antibacterial; biomaterials; surface modification; biofilm growth; cell-material interaction; infections

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, great concerns are associated with the resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms towards the conventional antibiotic therapies. The failure of traditional antimicrobials, and the increasing healthcare costs, have encouraged scientific research and the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Particularly, there is a great deal of interest in nanotechnologies and in antibacterial products obtained through the incorporation of antibacterial agents or the deposition of antibacterial coatings for prevention of biofilm-associated infections.

The main focus of the forthcoming Special Issue is, therefore, to present the most recent efforts in scientific research in the development of advanced antimicrobial materials, with special attention to nature-inspired antimicrobial agents and antimicrobials nanomaterials and nanocoatings. For this purpose, we intend to collect original research articles and reviews on the synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial agents, as well as on the development of antimicrobial products for different applications.

Dr. Mauro Pollini
Prof. Dr. Alessandro Sannino
Dr. Federica Paladini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • infections
  • antimicrobial
  • nanomaterials
  • biofilm
  • antibiotic-resistance

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptides and Short Lipopeptides on Bacterial Biofilms Formed on Contact Lenses
Materials 2016, 9(11), 873; doi:10.3390/ma9110873
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The widespread use of contact lenses is associated with several complications, including ocular biofilm-related infections. They are very difficult to manage with standard antimicrobial therapies, because bacterial growth in a biofilm is associated with an increased antibiotic resistance. The principal aim of this
[...] Read more.
The widespread use of contact lenses is associated with several complications, including ocular biofilm-related infections. They are very difficult to manage with standard antimicrobial therapies, because bacterial growth in a biofilm is associated with an increased antibiotic resistance. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in eradication of bacterial biofilms formed on commercially available contact lenses. AMPs were synthesized according to Fmoc/tBu chemistry using the solid-phase method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of the compounds were determined. Anti-biofilm activity of the antimicrobial peptides determined at different temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) were compared with the effectiveness of commercially available contact lens solutions. All of the tested compounds exhibited stronger anti-biofilm properties as compared to those of the tested lens solutions. The strongest activity of AMPs was noticed against Gram-positive strains at a temperature of 25 °C. Conclusions: The results of our experiments encourage us toward further studies on AMPs and their potential application in the prophylaxis of contact lens-related eye infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation of Industrial Polyurethane Foams Modified with Antimicrobial Copper Nanoparticles
Materials 2016, 9(7), 544; doi:10.3390/ma9070544
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 7 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission
[...] Read more.
Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The release of copper ions in solution was studied by Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of freshly prepared, as well as aged samples—stored for two months—was demonstrated towards different target microorganisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exopolysaccharide-Based Bioflocculant Matrix of Azotobacter chroococcum XU1 for Synthesis of AgCl Nanoparticles and Its Application as a Novel Biocidal Nanobiomaterial
Materials 2016, 9(7), 528; doi:10.3390/ma9070528
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 25 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple and green method was developed for the biosynthesis of AgCl nanoparticles, free from Ag nanoparticles, using the exopolysaccharide-based bioflocculant of nitrogen fixing Azotobacter chroococcum XU1 strain. AgCl nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) and Scanning
[...] Read more.
A simple and green method was developed for the biosynthesis of AgCl nanoparticles, free from Ag nanoparticles, using the exopolysaccharide-based bioflocculant of nitrogen fixing Azotobacter chroococcum XU1 strain. AgCl nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The concentration-dependent and controllable method for the synthesis of AgCl nanoparticles of a certain size and morphology was developed. As-synthesized AgCl nanoparticles were characterized bya high content of AgCl and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity towards pathogenic microorganisms such as E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. The biofabricated AgCl nanoparticles can be exploited as a promising new biocidalbionanocomposite against pathogenic microorganisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of New Chlorhexidine-Containing Nanoparticles for Root Canal Disinfection
Materials 2016, 9(6), 452; doi:10.3390/ma9060452
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Root canal system disinfection is limited due to anatomical complexities. Better delivery systems of antimicrobial agents are needed to ensure efficient bacteria eradication. The purpose of this study was to design chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles that could steadily release the drug. The drug chlorhexidine was
[...] Read more.
Root canal system disinfection is limited due to anatomical complexities. Better delivery systems of antimicrobial agents are needed to ensure efficient bacteria eradication. The purpose of this study was to design chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles that could steadily release the drug. The drug chlorhexidine was encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol)–block–poly(l-lactide) (PEG–b–PLA) to synthesize bilayer nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and particle characterization was performed through microscopy studies of particle morphology and size. Their antimicrobial effect was assessed over the endodontic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The nanoparticles ranged in size from 300–500 nm, which is considered small enough for penetration inside small dentin tubules. The nanoparticles were dispersed in a hydrogel matrix carrier system composed of 1% hydroxyethyl cellulose, and this hydrogel system was observed to have enhanced bacterial inhibition over longer periods of time. Chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles demonstrate potential as a drug carrier for root canal procedures. Their size and rate of release may allow for sustained inhibition of bacteria in the root canal system. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Assessment of the Antibacterial Potential of Silver Nano-Coatings on Cotton Gauzes for Prevention of Wound Infections
Materials 2016, 9(6), 411; doi:10.3390/ma9060411
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
PDF Full-text (4949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multidrug-resistant organisms are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic wound infections, thus compromising the chance of therapeutic options. The resistance to conventional antibiotics demonstrated by some bacterial strains has encouraged new approaches for the prevention of infections in wounds and burns, among them
[...] Read more.
Multidrug-resistant organisms are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic wound infections, thus compromising the chance of therapeutic options. The resistance to conventional antibiotics demonstrated by some bacterial strains has encouraged new approaches for the prevention of infections in wounds and burns, among them the use of silver compounds and nanocrystalline silver. Recently, silver wound dressings have become widely accepted in wound healing centers and are commercially available. In this work, novel antibacterial wound dressings have been developed through a silver deposition technology based on the photochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The devices obtained are completely natural and the silver coatings are characterized by an excellent adhesion without the use of any binder. The silver-treated cotton gauzes were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in order to verify the distribution and the dimension of the silver particles on the cotton fibers. The effectiveness of the silver-treated gauzes in reducing the bacterial growth and biofilm proliferation has been demonstrated through agar diffusion tests, bacterial enumeration test, biofilm quantification tests, fluorescence and SEM microscopy. Moreover, potential cytotoxicity of the silver coating was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) and the extract method on fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed in order to determine the silver release in different media and to relate the results to the biological characterization. All the results obtained were compared with plain gauzes as a negative control, as well as gauzes treated with a higher silver percentage as a positive control. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages
Materials 2016, 9(5), 371; doi:10.3390/ma9050371
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied
[...] Read more.
In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on the Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposites
Materials 2016, 9(5), 351; doi:10.3390/ma9050351
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, biopolymer-based nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties were prepared via melt-compounding. In particular, graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) as fillers and an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX), as biocide were incorporated in a commercial biodegradable polymer blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a copolyester
[...] Read more.
In this work, biopolymer-based nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties were prepared via melt-compounding. In particular, graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) as fillers and an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX), as biocide were incorporated in a commercial biodegradable polymer blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a copolyester (BioFlex®). The prepared materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and rheological and mechanical measurements. Moreover, the effect of GnPs on the antimicrobial properties and release kinetics of CFX was evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GnPs increased the stiffness of the biopolymeric matrix and allowed for the tuning of the release of CFX without hindering the antimicrobial activity of the obtained materials. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Silver Chloride Nanoparticles Stabilized with Chitosan Oligomer for the Healing of Burns
Materials 2016, 9(4), 215; doi:10.3390/ma9040215
Received: 11 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, numerous compounds have been studied in order to develop antibacterial agents, which can prevent colonized wounds from infection, and assist the wound healing. For this purpose, novel silver chloride nanoparticles stabilized with chitosan oligomer (CHI-AgCl NPs) were synthesized to investigate the influence
[...] Read more.
Recently, numerous compounds have been studied in order to develop antibacterial agents, which can prevent colonized wounds from infection, and assist the wound healing. For this purpose, novel silver chloride nanoparticles stabilized with chitosan oligomer (CHI-AgCl NPs) were synthesized to investigate the influence of antibacterial chitosan oligomer (CHI) exerted by the silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl NPs) on burn wound healing in a rat model. The CHI-AgCl NPs had a spherical morphology with a mean diameter of 42 ± 15 nm. The burn wound healing of CHI-AgCl NPs ointment was compared with untreated group, Vaseline ointment, and chitosan ointment group. The burn wound treated with CHI-AgCl NPs ointment was completely healed by 14 treatment days, and was similar to normal skin. Particularly, the regenerated collagen density became the highest in the CHI-AgCl NPs ointment group. The CHI-AgCl NPs ointment is considered a suitable healing agent for burn wounds, due to dual antibacterial activity of the AgCl NPs and CHI. Full article
Open AccessArticle Silica-Gentamicin Nanohybrids: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Action
Materials 2016, 9(3), 170; doi:10.3390/ma9030170
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 5 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Orthopedic applications commonly require the administration of systemic antibiotics. Gentamicin is one of the most commonly used aminoglycosides in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections associated with orthopedic applications, but gentamicin has a short half-life. However, silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) can be
[...] Read more.
Orthopedic applications commonly require the administration of systemic antibiotics. Gentamicin is one of the most commonly used aminoglycosides in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections associated with orthopedic applications, but gentamicin has a short half-life. However, silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) can be used as elegant carriers for antibiotics to prolong their release. Our goal is the preparation and characterization of SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids for their potential antimicrobial administration in orthopedic applications. In vitro gentamicin release profile from the nanohybrids (gentamicin-conjugated SiO2 NPs) prepared by the base-catalyzed precipitation exhibited fast release (21.4%) during the first 24 h and further extension with 43.9% release during the five-day experiment. Antimicrobial studies of the SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids versus native SiO2 NPs and free gentamicin were performed against Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids were most effective against B. subtilis. SiO2 NPs play no antimicrobial role. Parallel antimicrobial studies for the filter-sterilized gentamicin were performed to assess the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation on gentamicin. In summary, the initial fast gentamicin release fits the need for high concentration of antibiotics after orthopedic surgical interventions. Moreover, the extended release justifies the promising antimicrobial administration of the nanohybrids in bone applications. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing for the Preparation of Antibacterial Surfaces
Materials 2016, 9(7), 515; doi:10.3390/ma9070515
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
PDF Full-text (3886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-equilibrium plasmas offer several strategies for developing antibacterial surfaces that are able to repel and/or to kill bacteria. Due to the variety of devices, implants, and materials in general, as well as of bacteria and applications, plasma assisted antibacterial strategies need to be
[...] Read more.
Non-equilibrium plasmas offer several strategies for developing antibacterial surfaces that are able to repel and/or to kill bacteria. Due to the variety of devices, implants, and materials in general, as well as of bacteria and applications, plasma assisted antibacterial strategies need to be tailored to each specific surface. Nano-composite coatings containing inorganic (metals and metal oxides) or organic (drugs and biomolecules) compounds can be deposited in one step, and used as drug delivery systems. On the other hand, functional coatings can be plasma-deposited and used to bind antibacterial molecules, for synthesizing surfaces with long lasting antibacterial activity. In addition, non-fouling coatings can be produced to inhibit the adhesion of bacteria and reduce the formation of biofilm. This paper reviews plasma-based strategies aimed to reduce bacterial attachment and proliferation on biomedical materials and devices, but also onto materials used in other fields. Most of the activities described have been developed in the lab of the authors. Full article

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