Special Issue "Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials"

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A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Heather Sheardown (Website)

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Room JHE-124A, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7, Canada
Interests: ophthalmic biomaterials; ophthalmic drug delivery; polymers; surface modification; protein adsorption; cell material interactions; hydrogels; contact lenses; intraocular lenses
Guest Editor
Dr. Traian V. Chirila (Website)

Queensland Eye Institute, 41 Annerley Road, South Brisbane, Qld. 4101, Australia
Phone: 61-7-3239-5024
Interests: development of polymer substrates for cellular growth; biodegradable hydrogels; calcification of hydrogels; interpenetrating polymers networks; artificial vitreous substitutes; self-healing hydrogels; tissue engineering; ocular surface reconstruction; controlled release of bioactive agents; artificial corneal endothelium

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After half of a century, the field of ophthalmic biomaterials has become firmly established as an integral and essential part of the ocular tissue engineering and regenerative ophthalmology. Biomaterials, either modified biopolymers or synthetic polymers, are used as replacements for various damaged ocular elements. Such replacements include artificial intraocular lenses, artificial corneas and corneal elements, vitreous substitutes, tube systems and canaliculi for glaucoma and lacrimal surgery, carriers for sustained release of ocular drugs, surgical adhesives, viscoelastics for ocular surgery etc. Going beyond prosthetic replacements and devices, novel types of ophthalmic biomaterials are currently being developed by manipulating both bulk structure and surface of materials to provide more complex systems able to play a role in the stimulation of target cells with an aim to heal and regenerate damaged ocular tissue. Such biomaterials serve for the creation of tissue-engineered constructs that are used in new regenerative strategies that are advanced for the treatment of eye disease and trauma.

Prof. Dr. Heather Sheardown
Dr. Traian V. Chirila
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • keratoprosthesis
  • IOLs
  • vitreous substitution
  • ocular adhesives
  • ocular surface reconstruction
  • corneal tissue engineering
  • retinal repair and regeneration
  • substrata for ocular stem cells

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Epoxy Cross-Linked Collagen and Collagen-Laminin Peptide Hydrogels as Corneal Substitutes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(3), 162-177; doi:10.3390/jfb4030162
Received: 7 April 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A bi-functional epoxy-based cross-linker, 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE), was investigated in the fabrication of collagen based corneal substitutes. Two synthetic strategies were explored in the preparation of the cross-linked collagen scaffolds. The lysine residues of Type 1 porcine collagen were directly cross-linked [...] Read more.
A bi-functional epoxy-based cross-linker, 1,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE), was investigated in the fabrication of collagen based corneal substitutes. Two synthetic strategies were explored in the preparation of the cross-linked collagen scaffolds. The lysine residues of Type 1 porcine collagen were directly cross-linked using l,4-Butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) under basic conditions at pH 11. Alternatively, under conventional methodology, using both BDDGE and 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as cross-linkers, hydrogels were fabricated under acidic conditions. In this latter strategy, Cu(BF4)2·XH2O was used to catalyze the formation of secondary amine bonds. To date, we have demonstrated that both methods of chemical cross-linking improved the elasticity and tensile strength of the collagen implants. Differential scanning calorimetry and biocompatibility studies indicate comparable, and in some cases, enhanced properties compared to that of the EDC/NHS controls. In vitro studies showed that human corneal epithelial cells and neuronal progenitor cell lines proliferated on these hydrogels. In addition, improvement of cell proliferation on the surfaces of the materials was observed when neurite promoting laminin epitope, IKVAV, and adhesion peptide, YIGSR, were incorporated. However, the elasticity decreased with peptide incorporation and will require further optimization. Nevertheless, we have shown that epoxy cross-linkers should be further explored in the fabrication of collagen-based hydrogels, as alternatives to or in conjunction with carbodiimide cross-linkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Incorporation of Exogenous RGD Peptide and Inter-Species Blending as Strategies for Enhancing Human Corneal Limbal Epithelial Cell Growth on Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin Membranes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(2), 74-88; doi:10.3390/jfb4020074
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While fibroin isolated from the cocoons of domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori supports growth of human corneal limbal epithelial (HLE) cells, the mechanism of cell attachment remains unclear. In the present study we sought to enhance the attachment of HLE cells to membranes [...] Read more.
While fibroin isolated from the cocoons of domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori supports growth of human corneal limbal epithelial (HLE) cells, the mechanism of cell attachment remains unclear. In the present study we sought to enhance the attachment of HLE cells to membranes of Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) through surface functionalization with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptide. Moreover, we have examined the response of HLE cells to BMSF when blended with the fibroin produced by a wild silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, which is known to contain RGD sequences within its primary structure. A procedure to isolate A. pernyi silk fibroin (APSF) from the cocoons was established, and blends of the two fibroins were prepared at five different BMSF/APSF ratios. In another experiment, BMSF surface was modified by binding chemically the GRGDSPC peptide using a water-soluble carbodiimide. Primary HLE were grown in the absence of serum on membranes made of BMSF, APSF, and their blends, as well as on RGD-modified BMSF. There was no statistically significant enhancing effect on the cell attachment due to the RGD presence. This suggests that the adhesion through RGD ligands may have a complex mechanism, and the investigated strategies are of limited value unless the factors contributing to this mechanism become better known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Cultivation of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells on Topographical Substrates to Mimic the Human Corneal Endothelium
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 38-58; doi:10.3390/jfb4010038
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human corneal endothelial cells have a limited ability to replicate in vivo and in vitro. Allograft transplantation becomes necessary when an accident or trauma results in excessive cell loss. The reconstruction of the cornea endothelium using autologous cell sources is a [...] Read more.
Human corneal endothelial cells have a limited ability to replicate in vivo and in vitro. Allograft transplantation becomes necessary when an accident or trauma results in excessive cell loss. The reconstruction of the cornea endothelium using autologous cell sources is a promising alternative option for therapeutic or in vitro drug testing applications. The native corneal endothelium rests on the Descemet’s membrane, which has nanotopographies of fibers and pores. The use of synthetic topographies mimics the native environment, and it is hypothesized that this can direct the behavior and growth of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) to resemble the corneal endothelium. In this study, HMVECs are cultivated on substrates with micron and nano-scaled pillar and well topographies. Closely packed HMVEC monolayers with polygonal cells and well-developed tight junctions were formed on the topographical substrates. Sodium/potassium (Na+/K+) adenine triphosphatase (ATPase) expression was enhanced on the microwells substrate, which also promotes microvilli formation, while more hexagonal-like cells are found on the micropillars samples. The data obtained suggests that the use of optimized surface patterning, in particular, the microtopographies, can induce HMVECs to adopt a more corneal endothelium-like morphology with similar barrier and pump functions. The mechanism involved in cell contact guidance by the specific topographical features will be of interest for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Design and in Vitro Biocompatibility of a Novel Ocular Drug Delivery Device
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 14-26; doi:10.3390/jfb4010014
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The capsule drug ring (CDR) is a reservoir and delivery agent, which is designed to be placed within the capsular bag during cataract surgery. Prototypes were manufactured by hot melt extrusion of Bionate II®, a polycarbonate urethane. The devices have [...] Read more.
The capsule drug ring (CDR) is a reservoir and delivery agent, which is designed to be placed within the capsular bag during cataract surgery. Prototypes were manufactured by hot melt extrusion of Bionate II®, a polycarbonate urethane. The devices have been optimized using Avastin® as the drug of interest. In vitro biocompatibility was assessed with human lens epithelial cell (B-3), mouse macrophage (J774A.1) and mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines. Cell migration and proliferation were assessed after in vitro culture. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., MIP-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF and TGF-β1) were quantified using cytometric bead array (CBA). Preliminary in vivo biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics testing has been performed in rabbits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Tissue Engineering of the Corneal Endothelium: A Review of Carrier Materials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(4), 178-208; doi:10.3390/jfb4040178
Received: 3 August 2013 / Revised: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional impairment of the human corneal endothelium can lead to corneal blindness. In order to meet the high demand for transplants with an appropriate human corneal endothelial cell density as a prerequisite for corneal function, several tissue engineering techniques have been developed [...] Read more.
Functional impairment of the human corneal endothelium can lead to corneal blindness. In order to meet the high demand for transplants with an appropriate human corneal endothelial cell density as a prerequisite for corneal function, several tissue engineering techniques have been developed to generate transplantable endothelial cell sheets. These approaches range from the use of natural membranes, biological polymers and biosynthetic material compositions, to completely synthetic materials as matrices for corneal endothelial cell sheet generation. This review gives an overview about currently used materials for the generation of transplantable corneal endothelial cell sheets with a special focus on thermo-responsive polymer coatings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Keeping an Eye on Decellularized Corneas: A Review of Methods, Characterization and Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(3), 114-161; doi:10.3390/jfb4030114
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The worldwide limited availability of suitable corneal donor tissue has led to the development of alternatives, including keratoprostheses (Kpros) and tissue engineered (TE) constructs. Despite advances in bioscaffold design, there is yet to be a corneal equivalent that effectively mimics both the [...] Read more.
The worldwide limited availability of suitable corneal donor tissue has led to the development of alternatives, including keratoprostheses (Kpros) and tissue engineered (TE) constructs. Despite advances in bioscaffold design, there is yet to be a corneal equivalent that effectively mimics both the native tissue ultrastructure and biomechanical properties. Human decellularized corneas (DCs) could offer a safe, sustainable source of corneal tissue, increasing the donor pool and potentially reducing the risk of immune rejection after corneal graft surgery. Appropriate, human-specific, decellularization techniques and high-resolution, non-destructive analysis systems are required to ensure reproducible outputs can be achieved. If robust treatment and characterization processes can be developed, DCs could offer a supplement to the donor corneal pool, alongside superior cell culture systems for pharmacology, toxicology and drug discovery studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)

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