Special Issue "Xenobiotic Metabolism"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2013)
Dr. Michael Iba
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Interests: developmental toxicology; xenobiotic metabolism/activation; aromatic amine toxicity; volatile organic compound toxicity; health effects of tobacco smoke
Drug metabolism is a process by which drug molecules undergo enzyme-catalyzed chemical transformations into products that are more hydrophilic and more easily excreted in urine or bile. The process can also yield products that are more pharmacologically active or more toxic than their precursors. Enzymes involved in drug metabolism typically catalyze the oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis of drug molecules (phase I reactions), and conjugation of the drugs or their metabolites with endogenous compounds (phase II reactions). The same enzymes also catalyze the metabolism of a wide variety of other xenobiotics as well as some endogenous compounds.
While the liver is quantitatively the major organ of drug metabolism, extrahepatic tissues can also metabolize drugs but at rates usually lower than the liver. Nevertheless, extrahepatic metabolism may play a significant role in the efficacy and/or characteristic organ-selective toxicity of certain drugs.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major subcellular localization of drug metabolizing enzymes, particularly the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which catalyze the majority of all phase I drug metabolism reactions. Recent studies have localized CYP enzymes to other subcellular fractions, including mitochondria. The mechanisms by which the enzymes are targeted to specific subcellular organelles and the physiological, pharmacological and toxicological significance of non-ER CYP enzymes is an active area of research.
Hepatic metabolism of certain drugs requires transporter-mediated uptake of the drugs by hepatocytes. Deficiency in the transporters has been associated with impaired metabolism of the drugs, with consequent enhancement of their adverse effects. Thus, transport may play a significant role in drug metabolism. Other factors known to significantly influence drug metabolism include age, sex, physiological/disease status, and genetics. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which these factors influence drug metabolism is necessary for the effective and safe use of therapeutic dugs and for the development of effective measures against environmental toxicants.
This special issue is intended to serve as a platform for updating information on drug metabolism and for presenting advances in basic and clinical research in the field.
Prof. Dr. Michael Iba
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- age, sexual and genetic variability
- cytochrome P450 and non-P450 enzymes
- subcellular fractions
- phase I and phase II metabolism