Special Issue "Xenobiotic Metabolism"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2013)
Dr. Michael Iba
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Interests: developmental toxicology; xenobiotic metabolism/activation; aromatic amine toxicity; volatile organic compound toxicity; health effects of tobacco smoke
Drug metabolism is a process by which drug molecules undergo enzyme-catalyzed chemical transformations into products that are more hydrophilic and more easily excreted in urine or bile. The process can also yield products that are more pharmacologically active or more toxic than their precursors. Enzymes involved in drug metabolism typically catalyze the oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis of drug molecules (phase I reactions), and conjugation of the drugs or their metabolites with endogenous compounds (phase II reactions). The same enzymes also catalyze the metabolism of a wide variety of other xenobiotics as well as some endogenous compounds.
While the liver is quantitatively the major organ of drug metabolism, extrahepatic tissues can also metabolize drugs but at rates usually lower than the liver. Nevertheless, extrahepatic metabolism may play a significant role in the efficacy and/or characteristic organ-selective toxicity of certain drugs.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major subcellular localization of drug metabolizing enzymes, particularly the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which catalyze the majority of all phase I drug metabolism reactions. Recent studies have localized CYP enzymes to other subcellular fractions, including mitochondria. The mechanisms by which the enzymes are targeted to specific subcellular organelles and the physiological, pharmacological and toxicological significance of non-ER CYP enzymes is an active area of research.
Hepatic metabolism of certain drugs requires transporter-mediated uptake of the drugs by hepatocytes. Deficiency in the transporters has been associated with impaired metabolism of the drugs, with consequent enhancement of their adverse effects. Thus, transport may play a significant role in drug metabolism. Other factors known to significantly influence drug metabolism include age, sex, physiological/disease status, and genetics. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which these factors influence drug metabolism is necessary for the effective and safe use of therapeutic dugs and for the development of effective measures against environmental toxicants.
This special issue is intended to serve as a platform for updating information on drug metabolism and for presenting advances in basic and clinical research in the field.
Prof. Dr. Michael Iba
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- age, sexual and genetic variability
- cytochrome P450 and non-P450 enzymes
- subcellular fractions
- phase I and phase II metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 10809-10818; doi:10.3390/ijms140610809
Received: 10 April 2013; in revised form: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 23 May 2013| Download PDF Full-text (1130 KB) | Download XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Article: Effects of Ospemifene on Drug Metabolism Mediated by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Humans in Vitro and in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14064-14075; doi:10.3390/ijms140714064
Received: 14 June 2013; in revised form: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013| Download PDF Full-text (664 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Brief Report: Influence of Genetic Variations on Levels of Inflammatory Markers of Healthy Subjects at Baseline and One Week after Clopidogrel Therapy; Results of a Preliminary Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 16402-16413; doi:10.3390/ijms140816402
Received: 7 June 2013; in revised form: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 8 August 2013| Download PDF Full-text (225 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 17926-17942; doi:10.3390/ijms140917926
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013| Download PDF Full-text (247 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Technical Note: A Computational Drug Metabolite Detection Using the Stable Isotopic Mass-Shift Filtering with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry in Pioglitazone and Flurbiprofen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 19716-19730; doi:10.3390/ijms141019716
Received: 22 July 2013; in revised form: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013| Download PDF Full-text (2106 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22011-22021; doi:10.3390/ijms141122011
Received: 28 September 2013; in revised form: 28 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 6 November 2013| Download PDF Full-text (396 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23801-23827; doi:10.3390/ijms141223801
Received: 5 November 2013; in revised form: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013| Download PDF Full-text (507 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24514-24530; doi:10.3390/ijms141224514
Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013| Download PDF Full-text (1176 KB) | Download XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Article: Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers: A Unique Tool for in Vivo and in Vitro Enzyme Induction Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 58-74; doi:10.3390/ijms15010058
Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013| Download PDF Full-text (606 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Towards Automated Binding Affinity Prediction Using an Iterative Linear Interaction Energy Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 798-816; doi:10.3390/ijms15010798
Received: 14 November 2013; in revised form: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014| Download PDF Full-text (6746 KB) | Download XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Article: Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2274-2288; doi:10.3390/ijms15022274
Received: 18 November 2013; in revised form: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 3 January 2014 / Published: 5 February 2014| Download PDF Full-text (783 KB)
Review: Xenobiotic Metabolism: The Effect of Acute Kidney Injury on Non-Renal Drug Clearance and Hepatic Drug Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2538-2553; doi:10.3390/ijms15022538
Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 13 February 2014| Download PDF Full-text (202 KB)
Last update: 30 July 2013