Next Article in Journal
Liberation of GPI-Anchored Prion from Phospholipids Accelerates Amyloidogenic Conversion
Next Article in Special Issue
A Computational Drug Metabolite Detection Using the Stable Isotopic Mass-Shift Filtering with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry in Pioglitazone and Flurbiprofen
Previous Article in Journal
Oxidative Stress in Aging-Matters of the Heart and Mind
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Genetic Variations on Levels of Inflammatory Markers of Healthy Subjects at Baseline and One Week after Clopidogrel Therapy; Results of a Preliminary Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 17926-17942; doi:10.3390/ijms140917926
Review

Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ54 Isomerase: A Review

1
,
1,*  and 2
1 Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark 2 Department of Food Science, BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xenobiotic Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [247 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]

Abstract

This review focuses on the expression and regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ54 isomerase (3β-HSD), with emphasis on the porcine version. 3β-HSD is often associated with steroidogenesis, but its function in the metabolism of both steroids and xenobiotics is more obscure. Based on currently available literature covering humans, rodents and pigs, this review provides an overview of the present knowledge concerning the regulatory mechanisms for 3β-HSD at all omic levels. The HSD isoenzymes are essential in steroid hormone metabolism, both in the synthesis and degradation of steroids. They display tissue-specific expression and factors influencing their activity, which therefore indicates their tissue-specific responses. 3β-HSD is involved in the synthesis of a number of natural steroid hormones, including progesterone and testosterone, and the hepatic degradation of the pheromone androstenone. In general, a number of signaling and regulatory pathways have been demonstrated to influence 3β-HSD transcription and activity, e.g., JAK-STAT, LH/hCG, ERα, AR, SF-1 and PPARα. The expression and enzymic activity of 3β-HSD are also influenced by external factors, such as dietary composition. Much of the research conducted on porcine 3β-HSD is motivated by its importance for the occurrence of the boar taint phenomenon that results from high concentrations of steroids such as androstenone. This topic is also examined in this review.
Keywords: hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; pig; boar taint; expression; steroid hormones; metabolism hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; pig; boar taint; expression; steroid hormones; metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Rasmussen, M.K.; Ekstrand, B.; Zamaratskaia, G. Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ54 Isomerase: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17926-17942.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert