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Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase: A Review
Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
Department of Food Science, BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
Abstract: This review focuses on the expression and regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD), with emphasis on the porcine version. 3β-HSD is often associated with steroidogenesis, but its function in the metabolism of both steroids and xenobiotics is more obscure. Based on currently available literature covering humans, rodents and pigs, this review provides an overview of the present knowledge concerning the regulatory mechanisms for 3β-HSD at all omic levels. The HSD isoenzymes are essential in steroid hormone metabolism, both in the synthesis and degradation of steroids. They display tissue-specific expression and factors influencing their activity, which therefore indicates their tissue-specific responses. 3β-HSD is involved in the synthesis of a number of natural steroid hormones, including progesterone and testosterone, and the hepatic degradation of the pheromone androstenone. In general, a number of signaling and regulatory pathways have been demonstrated to influence 3β-HSD transcription and activity, e.g., JAK-STAT, LH/hCG, ERα, AR, SF-1 and PPARα. The expression and enzymic activity of 3β-HSD are also influenced by external factors, such as dietary composition. Much of the research conducted on porcine 3β-HSD is motivated by its importance for the occurrence of the boar taint phenomenon that results from high concentrations of steroids such as androstenone. This topic is also examined in this review.
Keywords: hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; pig; boar taint; expression; steroid hormones; metabolism
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Rasmussen, M.K.; Ekstrand, B.; Zamaratskaia, G. Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17926-17942.
Rasmussen MK, Ekstrand B, Zamaratskaia G. Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):17926-17942.
Rasmussen, Martin K.; Ekstrand, Bo; Zamaratskaia, Galia. 2013. "Regulation of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 Isomerase: A Review." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 17926-17942.