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Topical Collection "Health Behavior and Public Health"

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Tetsuji Yamada

Professor of Health Economics, chairperson, Rutgers University, #330 Armitage Hall, 311 North 5th Street, Camden, NJ 08102, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1-212-808-5375
Interests: health economics; economics of health behavior; public health and health promotion; economics of social welfare and public policy; health education
Collection Editor
Dr. Chia-Ching Chen

Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Health Sciences & Practice, Room #223, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: accessibility; disparities; psychosocial determinants associated with individual level outcomes

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health behavior change has become a central objective of public health and public health policy past years. During the past years, there has been a significant increase in public, private, and professional support in the public health field in preventing illness and maintaining good health by changing individuals’ lifestyle through behavioral changes. Another issues are accessibilities of healthcare services and an increase in health disparities. Along with this line, health literacy is another issue. Improvement of health and such support come from behavioral scientists, health educators, health promoters, health communicators, and governments. The influence of prevention within the health services has increased. It is important to underscore the application of behavioral and social science perspectives to research on contemporary health problems.

A decrease risk of morbidity and mortality basically depends on individual health behaviors, such as health literacy, behavioral decisions, equal access to healthcare. Understanding an influence on health behaviors and health risk factors is essential and associated with behavioral change which would be considered protective and health enhancing. Thus, Disease prevention, deterrence and early detection contribute to a healthy population, curbing a rapid increase in healthcare costs, and improving quality of life. In addition, issues on accessibility of health care and health disparities have become recent imperative concerns.

Assessment, interventions and evaluation of health and health behaviors are key elements to improve public health. Both public and private sectors provide preventive as well as treatment interventions. The augmented influence of prevention and maintenance of health and health policy would be coincided with increased multi-lateral levels with micro and macro aspects and cost-benefit/effectiveness analyses for allocation of resources is vital.

"Health Behavior and Public Health" explores research on health education, health communication, health behavioral changes, and public health policies, evaluates them with multilevel aspects, and exchanges knowledge in public health in interdisciplinary and international arenas.

Prof. Dr. Tetsuji Yamada
Dr. Chia-Ching Chen
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

2017

Open AccessArticle Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 634; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060634
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise
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Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70), grocery stores (n = 83), and betel nut stalls (n = 81). The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1%) of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1%) to 59 (25.2%) and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9%) to 175 (74.8%) after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001). Study II: A total of 476 (89.1%) participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9%) had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%). The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act by selling tobacco products to minors. Schools should pay close attention to tobacco hazard prevention education for junior high school students to ensure that such students are adequately educated about tobacco hazard prevention. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 610; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060610
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
PDF Full-text (1280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a
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The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water Consumption in European Children: Associations with Intake of Fruit Juices, Soft Drinks and Related Parenting Practices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 583; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060583
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of
[...] Read more.
Background: High intake of fruit juices and soft drinks contributes to excessive weight gain and obesity in children. Furthermore, parenting practices play an important role in the development of children’s dietary habits. The way parents play this role in the development of their children’s choices of beverages is still unclear. Objectives: To study the associations: (1) of both fruit juices and soft drinks consumption with water consumption of children and (2) The associations between parenting practices towards fruit juices and soft drinks and water consumption of children. Design: Cross-sectional data from 6 to 8 year old children from seven European communities (n = 1187) were collected. Associations among fruit juices, soft drinks, the respective parenting practices and the child’s water consumption were assessed by parental questionnaires. Results: The consumption of water was inversely associated with that of soft drinks but not with the consumption of fruit juices. The child’s water intake was favorably influenced when stricter parenting practices towards soft drinks were adopted (e.g., less parental allowance, low home availability and high parental self-efficacy in managing intake). There was less influence observed of parenting practices towards fruit juices. Fruit juices were consumed more often than soft drinks. Conclusions: Low consumption of soft drinks—and not of fruit juices—was associated with high water consumption in children in the current study. Moreover, parenting practices towards both fruit juices and soft drinks were associated with the water intake of the children, irrespective of their socio-economic status. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Young Adults from 24 Low- and Middle-Income and Two High-Income Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 566; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060566
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric
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Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited in 26 universities in 24 low- and middle-income and two high-income countries. The sample included 18,211 (42.1% male and 57.9% female, mean age 21.0 in male and 20.7 years in female students) undergraduate university students. The overall BMI was a mean of 22.5 kg/m2 for men and 22.0 kg/m2 for women, and the mean WC was 78.4 cm for men and 73.8 cm for women. More than 39% of the students reported short sleep duration (≤6 h/day) and over 30% reported moderate to extreme sleep problems. In a linear multivariable regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, short sleep duration was positively associated with BMI in both men and women, and was positively associated with WC among women but not among men. Sleep quality or problems among men were not associated with BMI, while among women mild sleep problems were inversely associated with BMI, and poor sleep quality or problems were positively associated with WC both among men and women. The study confirmed an association between short sleep duration and increased BMI and, among women, increased WC, and an association between poor sleep quality and increased WC but not BMI. Further, differences in the association between sleep characteristics and BMI and WC were found by region and country income. Full article
Open AccessArticle Beverage Intake, Smoking Behavior, and Alcohol Consumption in Contemporary China—A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 493; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050493
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has
[...] Read more.
Chinese residents enjoy various types of beverages in their daily life. With the rapid Westernization of contemporary China, several adverse health concerns—such as diabetes linked to sweetened beverages—have emerged. Until now, no research that examines associations between beverage consumption and smoking/drinking behaviors has been made available, despite the large Chinese populations partaking in such activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the association between beverage intake frequencies and smoking/drinking behaviors in 12,634 adult respondents who participated in the latest wave (2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Further, we applied Tukey’s Honest Significance test for pairwise comparisons. We defined the consumption categories as daily (at least one serving per day), weekly (less than one serving per day, at least one serving per week), monthly (less than one serving per week, at least one serving per month), and less than monthly or none—for sweetened beverage, water, tea, and coffee consumptions. The data showed that both tea and sweetened beverages are associated with smoking/drinking behaviors. Compared to respondents who consume tea and sweetened beverages daily, the odds of smoking behaviors are lower for those who consume such beverages less frequently. Further policy implications are discussed, including higher taxes on sweetened beverages and lessons from other countries. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Sleep and Body Weight: A Panel Data Model Based on a Retrospective Longitudinal Cohort of Chinese Infants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 458; doi:10.3390/ijerph14050458
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 25 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
The focus of this article is on sleep duration and sleep problems in infants and their association with body weight. A retrospective birth cohort of 519 infants was enrolled in a community-based study conducted in Changsha, China. Infant weight and other health-related information
[...] Read more.
The focus of this article is on sleep duration and sleep problems in infants and their association with body weight. A retrospective birth cohort of 519 infants was enrolled in a community-based study conducted in Changsha, China. Infant weight and other health-related information were collected during regular standard checkups at the Community Health Service Centers when infants were 1, 3, 6, 8, and 12 months old. The sleep duration and sleep problems of infants were assessed by maternal self-reports. Panel data model was used to evaluate the association of sleep duration and sleep problems with infant body weight. Significant relevance between self-reported sleep duration and weight of infants has been reported in the literature tested by the fixed effects model (p < 0.01). However, this study indicated that sleep problems of infants had no effect on their weight (p = 0.151), after adjusting feeding patterns and socioeconomic factors of their families. This paper argues that, as a potentially modifiable risk factor, infant sleep duration deserves more attention from their parents and families in order to prevent and control overweight or obesity in infants as well as reducing the incidence of obesity in adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 447; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040447
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed
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This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the “Reducing Social Inequalities in Health” program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence (p < 0.0001). Complete smoke-free rules were adopted by 22.1% of the study participants. Two factors, smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes—a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Who Is Using Outdoor Fitness Equipment and How? The Case of Xihu Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 448; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040448
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) placed in public parks has the potential to encourage physical activity. However, little is known about OFE users and use patterns. This study employed onsite and video observations of OFE usage to describe user characteristics and patterns in Xihu
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Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) placed in public parks has the potential to encourage physical activity. However, little is known about OFE users and use patterns. This study employed onsite and video observations of OFE usage to describe user characteristics and patterns in Xihu Park. Results indicate that OFE in this park attracted considerable use, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon. During these peak-hour observations, approximately 12 users per hour used the OFE, with the majority being females and seniors. The triple arm stretch and air walker were the most popular stations. However, most OFE users interacted with less than three of the available six OFE stations. Furthermore, users spent an average of less than nine minutes on all OFE stations combined. While OFE equipment was well-used in this urban park, it appears users did not interact with OFE at rates to produce a sufficient bout or level of physical activity during their park visit. Further investigations of OFE are encouraged to determine their health impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 450; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040450
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of
[...] Read more.
Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels. Full article
Open AccessArticle Smoke-Free Laws and Hazardous Drinking: A Cross-Sectional Study among U.S. Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 412; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040412
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
Tobacco and alcohol use are strongly associated. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of smoke-free law coverage and smoke-free bar law coverage with hazardous drinking behaviors among a representative sample of U.S. adult drinkers (n = 17,057). We merged 2009 National Health
[...] Read more.
Tobacco and alcohol use are strongly associated. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of smoke-free law coverage and smoke-free bar law coverage with hazardous drinking behaviors among a representative sample of U.S. adult drinkers (n = 17,057). We merged 2009 National Health Interview Survey data, American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database, and Census Population Estimates. Hazardous drinking outcomes included heavy drinking (>14 drinks/week for men; >7 drinks/week for women) and binge drinking (≥5 drinks on one or more days during past year). Chi-square tests compared hazardous drinking by sociodemographic factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine if smoke-free law and bar law coverages were associated with hazardous drinking, controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status. Subset analyses were conducted among drinkers who also smoked (n = 4074) to assess the association between law coverages and hazardous drinking. Among all drinkers, smoke-free law coverage was not associated with heavy drinking (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.50) or binge drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.93–1.26). Smoke-free bar law coverage was also found to be unrelated to hazardous drinking. Similar results were found among those drinkers who smoked. Findings suggest that smoke-free laws and bar laws are not associated with elevated risk for alcohol-related health issues. Full article
Open AccessArticle Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 383; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040383
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
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Abstract
The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students
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The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the “Eat Better Feel Better” Cooking Programme to Tackle Barriers to Healthy Eating
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 380; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040380
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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Abstract
We evaluated a 6-week community-based cooking programme, “Eat Better Feel Better”, aimed at tackling barriers to cooking and healthy eating using a single-group repeated measures design. 117 participants enrolled, 62 completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires, and 17 completed these and a 3–4 months
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We evaluated a 6-week community-based cooking programme, “Eat Better Feel Better”, aimed at tackling barriers to cooking and healthy eating using a single-group repeated measures design. 117 participants enrolled, 62 completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires, and 17 completed these and a 3–4 months follow-up questionnaire. Most participants were female, >45 years, and socioeconomically deprived. Confidence constructs changed positively from baseline to post-intervention (medians, scale 1 “not confident” to 7 “very confident”): “cooking using raw ingredients” (4, 6 p < 0.003), “following simple recipe” (5, 6 p = 0.003), “planning meals before shopping” (4, 5 p = <0.001), “shopping on a budget (4, 5 p = 0.044), “shopping healthier food” (4, 5 p = 0.007), “cooking new foods” (3, 5 p < 0.001), “cooking healthier foods” (4, 5 p = 0.001), “storing foods safely” (5, 6 p = 0.002); “using leftovers” (4, 5 p = 0.002), “cooking raw chicken” (5, 6 p = 0.021), and “reading food labels” (4, 5 p < 0.001). “Microwaving ready-meals” decreased 46% to 39% (p = 0.132). “Preparing meals from scratch” increased 48% to 59% (p = 0.071). Knowledge about correct portion sizes increased 47% to 74% (p = 0.002). Spending on ready-meals/week decreased. Follow-up telephone interviewees (n = 42) reported developing healthier eating patterns, spending less money/wasting less food, and preparing more meals/snacks from raw ingredients. The programme had positive effects on participants’ cooking skills confidence, helped manage time, and reduced barriers of cost, waste, and knowledge.) Full article
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Open AccessArticle Why Do People Exercise in Natural Environments? Norwegian Adults’ Motives for Nature-, Gym-, and Sports-Based Exercise
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 377; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040377
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exercise in natural environments (“green exercise”) confers numerous health benefits, but little is known about why people engage in green exercise. This study examined the importance of nature experiences as a motive for physical activity and the motivational profile of people who engage
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Exercise in natural environments (“green exercise”) confers numerous health benefits, but little is known about why people engage in green exercise. This study examined the importance of nature experiences as a motive for physical activity and the motivational profile of people who engage in green exercise compared to gym- and sports-based exercise. Physical activity motives and typical times spent in different domains of physical activity were reported by 2168 Norwegian adults in a survey. Experiencing nature was generally rated as the second-most important physical activity motive, exceeded only by convenience motives, and it was especially important for older adults and those who engage in greater amounts of instrumental physical activity. Green exercisers reported stronger motives concerning convenience and experiencing nature, whereas gym- or sports-based exercisers reported stronger motives for physical health and sociability. The motives associated with different leisure-time exercise domains may assist in understanding optimal promotion of green exercise. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influencing Factors of the Body Mass Index of Elementary Students in Southern Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 220; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030220
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 29 January 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
The body mass index (BMI) of school children in Taiwan is markedly increasing. According to statistical data from the Taiwan Ministry of Education, the prevalence of obesity in school children from the southern part of the country is the highest in Taiwan. Thus,
[...] Read more.
The body mass index (BMI) of school children in Taiwan is markedly increasing. According to statistical data from the Taiwan Ministry of Education, the prevalence of obesity in school children from the southern part of the country is the highest in Taiwan. Thus, exploring the factors influencing BMI in elementary school children from southern Taiwan is crucial. This study investigated the influencing factors including physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits, and perceived body shape on the BMIs of elementary school children from southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used, and the participants consisted of 3251 fifth-grade students (1628 boys, 50.1%; 1623 girls, 49.9%). The average BMI values for boys and girls were 19.69 and 18.70 (kg/cm) respectively. Statistically significant associations were observed between BMI and sex, 31–60 min of daily vigorous or moderate physical activities levels, length of time spent watching television, time spent on video games or the computer, and intake of vegetable or meat gravy with rice (p < 0.001). Perceived body shape also affected the BMI of school children. The results of this study enable educational institutions in Taiwan to understand the factors affecting the BMI of school children and use this information as the basis for future healthy body weight policies. Full article

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