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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 111; doi:10.3390/ijerph15010111

CRP Genotypes Predict Increased Risk to Co-Present with Low Vitamin D and Elevated CRP in a Group of Healthy Black South African Women

1
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition, North-West University, 11 Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, North West Province, South Africa
2
Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research (AUTHeR), North-West University, 11 Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, North West Province, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 10 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Behavior and Public Health)
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Abstract

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are independently associated with adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although an inverse association between these factors has been described, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We postulate that environment–gene interactions, through which 25(OH)D interacts with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CRP gene, modulate CRP; that certain CRP genotypes predispose individuals to a co-phenotype of low 25(OH)D and elevated CRP concentrations; and that this co-phenotype is associated with higher CVD risk. Twelve CRP SNPs were genotyped, and both 25(OH)D and CRP were quantified, in 505 black South African women. Alarmingly, 66% and 60% of the women presented with deficient/insufficient 25(OH)D and elevated CRP concentrations, respectively. CRP concentrations were higher in individuals with lower 25(OH)D concentrations. However, no 25(OH)D–CRP genotype interactions were evident. Several genotypes were associated with an altered risk of presenting with the co-phenotype, indicating a genetic predisposition. Women presenting with this co-phenotype had higher blood pressure and increased anthropometric measures, which may predispose them to develop CVD. We recommend increasing vitamin D fortification and supplementation efforts to reduce inflammation among black women with vitamin D deficiency, thereby possibly curbing diseases contingent on the co-phenotype described here. View Full-Text
Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D; calcidiol; calciferol; C-reactive protein; nutrigenetics; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs; Tswana 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D; calcidiol; calciferol; C-reactive protein; nutrigenetics; single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs; Tswana
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Myburgh, P.H.; Towers, G.W.; Kruger, I.M.; Nienaber-Rousseau, C. CRP Genotypes Predict Increased Risk to Co-Present with Low Vitamin D and Elevated CRP in a Group of Healthy Black South African Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 111.

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