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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1422; doi:10.3390/ijerph14111422

The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research

1
Cardiovascular Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
Blood Epidemiology and Clinical Therapeutics Branch, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Behavior and Public Health)
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Abstract

Little is known about recruitment methods for racial/ethnic minority populations from resource-limited areas for community-based health and needs assessments, particularly assessments that incorporate mobile health (mHealth) technology for characterizing physical activity and dietary intake. We examined whether the Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) model could reduce challenges recruiting and retaining participants from faith-based organizations in predominantly African American Washington, D.C. communities for a community-based assessment. Employing C.A.R.E. model elements, our diverse research team developed partnerships with churches, health organizations, academic institutions and governmental agencies. Through these partnerships, we cultivated a visible presence at community events, provided cardiovascular health education and remained accessible throughout the research process. Additionally, these relationships led to the creation of a community advisory board (CAB), which influenced the study’s design, implementation, and dissemination. Over thirteen months, 159 individuals were recruited for the study, 99 completed the initial assessment, and 81 used mHealth technology to self-monitor physical activity over 30 days. The culturally and historically sensitive C.A.R.E. model strategically engaged CAB members and study participants. It was essential for success in recruitment and retention of an at-risk, African American population and may be an effective model for researchers hoping to engage racial/ethnic minority populations living in urban communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: community-based participatory research; mobile health technology; recruitment; Black/African American; underrepresented populations; health disparities; public health and health promotion community-based participatory research; mobile health technology; recruitment; Black/African American; underrepresented populations; health disparities; public health and health promotion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ceasar, J.; Peters-Lawrence, M.H.; Mitchell, V.; Powell-Wiley, T.M. The Communication, Awareness, Relationships and Empowerment (C.A.R.E.) Model: An Effective Tool for Engaging Urban Communities in Community-Based Participatory Research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1422.

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