Special Issue "Wine Composition and Quality Analysis"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Kerry Wilkinson

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Urrbrae, SA, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: grape and wine chemistry, analytical chemistry and method development, sensory analysis of wine
Guest Editor
Dr. Julie Culbert

The Australian Wine Research Institute, Urrbrae, SA Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: grape and wine chemistry, analytical chemistry and method development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will focus on all aspects of wine composition and quality analysis, from grape berries, to winemaking, maturation and packaging, as well as the relationships between wine composition, sensory properties, and quality. We encourage submissions that explore the composition and quality of grapes and wine, particularly contributions concerning grape and wine appearance, aroma, flavor, off-flavor and stability, or other sensory attributes which influence wine quality. Papers that focus on the development and application of new analytical methods for determination of wine composition and quality are also encouraged.

We invite submissions of original research and review articles that explore contemporary issues in grape and wine chemistry for inclusion in this Special Issue.

Assoc. Prof. Kerry Wilkinson
Dr. Julie Culbert
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • grapes
  • wine
  • flavor and off-flavor
  • chemical stability
  • analytical methods
  • winemaking
  • maturation
  • packaging
  • quality

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Measuring Thiols in Single Cultivar South African Red Wines Using 4,4-Dithiodipyridine (DTDP) Derivatization and Ultraperformance Convergence Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Wine varietal thiols are important contributors to wine aroma. The chemical nature of thiols makes them difficult to measure due to low concentrations, high sensitivity to oxidation, and low ionization. Methods for the measurement of thiols usually consist of multiple steps of sample
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Wine varietal thiols are important contributors to wine aroma. The chemical nature of thiols makes them difficult to measure due to low concentrations, high sensitivity to oxidation, and low ionization. Methods for the measurement of thiols usually consist of multiple steps of sample preparation followed by instrumental measurement. Studies have collected large datasets of thiols in white wine but not in red wine, due to the lack of availability of suitable methods. In this study, for the first time, convergence chromatography was used to measure thiols in red wine at ultratrace levels with improved sensitivity compared to previous methods. Performance parameters (selectivity, linearity, limits of detection, precision, accuracy) were tested to demonstrate the suitability of the method for the proposed application. Red wine thiols were measured in South African Pinotage, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon wines (n = 16 each). Cultivar differentiation using the thiol profile was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle SPME Method Optimized by Box-Behnken Design for Impact Odorants in Reduced Alcohol Wines
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
The important sampling parameters of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) procedure such as the extraction temperature, extraction time, and sample volume were optimized to quantify 23 important impact odorants in reduced alcohol red and white wines. A three-factor design of Box-Behnken
[...] Read more.
The important sampling parameters of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) procedure such as the extraction temperature, extraction time, and sample volume were optimized to quantify 23 important impact odorants in reduced alcohol red and white wines. A three-factor design of Box-Behnken experiments was used to determine the optimized sampling conditions for each analyte, and a global optimized condition at every ethanol concentration of interest determined using a desirability function that accounts for a low signal response for compounds. Shiraz and Chardonnay wines were dealcoholized from 13.7 and 12.2% v/v ethanol respectively, to 8 and 5% v/v, using a commercially available membrane-based technology. A sample set of the reduced alcohol wines were also reconstituted to their natural ethanol level to evaluate the effect of the ethanol content reduction on volatile composition. The three-factor Box-Behnken experiment ensured an accurate determination of the headspace concentration of each compound at each ethanol concentration, allowing comparisons between wines at varying ethanol levels to be made. Overall, the results showed that the main effect of extraction temperature was considered the most critical factor when studying the equilibrium of reduced alcohol wine impact odorants. The impact of ethanol reduction upon the concentration of volatile compounds clearly resulted in losses of impact odorants from the wines. The concentration of most analytes decreased with dealcoholization compared to that of the natural samples. Significant differences were also found between the reconstituted volatile composition and 5% v/v reduced alcohol wines, revealing that the dealcoholization effect is the result of a combination between the type of dealcoholization treatment and reduction in wine ethanol content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant
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Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1–10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin–Ciocalteu’s assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1–20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25–200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Free Monoterpene Isomer Profiles of Vitis Vinifera L. cv. White Wines
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Monoterpene compounds contribute floral and fruity characters to wine and are desired by grape growers and winemakers for many white wines. However, monoterpene isomers, especially monoterpene enantiomers, have been little explored. It is possible to identify and quantitate 17 monoterpene isomers in 148
[...] Read more.
Monoterpene compounds contribute floral and fruity characters to wine and are desired by grape growers and winemakers for many white wines. However, monoterpene isomers, especially monoterpene enantiomers, have been little explored. It is possible to identify and quantitate 17 monoterpene isomers in 148 varietal wines from eight grape varieties; Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Pinot gris, Riesling, Sauvignon blanc, Torrontes, and Viognier in two vintages by Headspace solidphase microextraction multidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-MDGC-MS). Results obtained from general linear models and discriminant analysis showed significant differences for the isomer profiles and enantiomer fractions among the eight grape varieties and four wine styles. The high R2 values from the fitted line show low variation in enantiomeric differences based on variety. These results provide an overview of the monoterpene isomers of wide varietal wines, and support that isomer profiles and enantiomer fractions could differentiate our wines by varietal and wine style. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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