Next Article in Journal
Optimization of Conditions for Extraction of Polyphenols and the Determination of the Impact of Cooking on Total Polyphenolic, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Potato
Next Article in Special Issue
SPME Method Optimized by Box-Behnken Design for Impact Odorants in Reduced Alcohol Wines
Previous Article in Journal
Meat Quality Derived from High Inclusion of a Micro-Alga or Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source in Poultry Diets: A Pilot Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Free Monoterpene Isomer Profiles of Vitis Vinifera L. cv. White Wines
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Foods 2018, 7(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7030035

Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine

1
CREA Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy
2
CREA Research Centre for Plant Protection and Certification, via C.G. Bertero 22, 00156 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3069 KB, uploaded 9 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1–10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin–Ciocalteu’s assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1–20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25–200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine; polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; sulfites; polyvinylpyrrolidone wine; polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; sulfites; polyvinylpyrrolidone
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nardini, M.; Garaguso, I. Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine. Foods 2018, 7, 35.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top