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Special Issue "Entropy and Cardiac Physics"

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A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Niels Wessel

Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 10099 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: data analysis and modeling of cardiovascular signals; nonlinear time series analysis and prediction; coupling and synchronization analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We aim to present novel techniques, approaches and applications of entropy in the interdisciplinary field of cardiac physics. As such, we hope to welcome contributions from a wide range of disciplines, including all sciences: engineering and medicine. By presenting the most current research in this area, we hope to foster new collaborations and increase dissemination of ideas, as well as to emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary work.

In this way, we expect to encourage and facilitate the emergence of new tools and methods to help further understanding of the cardiovascular system.

Ultimately, the goal must be to establish our techniques in medical practice to help to prolong and enhance the life of millions suffering from cardiac malaises and diseases.

For this special issue we welcome submissions related to the use of entropy measures in cardiac physics. We envisage contributions that aim at clarifying the benefit of using entropy in cardiac physics, in order to demonstrate its profound impact on this field. In addition, we hope to receive original papers illustrating the wide variety of applications of entropy-based methods in cardiac physics.

Dr. Niels Wessel
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • biomedical signal processing
  • time series analysis
  • modeling
  • nonlinear dynamics
  • heart rate variability
  • blood pressure analysis
  • medical physics
  • biomedical engineering
  • coupling analysis
  • synchronization analysis
  • prediction

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Oxygen Saturation and RR Intervals Feature Selection for Sleep Apnea Detection
Entropy 2015, 17(5), 2932-2957; doi:10.3390/e17052932
Received: 3 December 2014 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
PDF Full-text (1857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A diagnostic system for sleep apnea based on oxygen saturation and RR intervals obtained from the EKG (electrocardiogram) is proposed with the goal to detect and quantify minute long segments of sleep with breathing pauses. We measured the discriminative capacity of combinations of
[...] Read more.
A diagnostic system for sleep apnea based on oxygen saturation and RR intervals obtained from the EKG (electrocardiogram) is proposed with the goal to detect and quantify minute long segments of sleep with breathing pauses. We measured the discriminative capacity of combinations of features obtained from RR series and oximetry to evaluate improvements of the performance compared to oximetry-based features alone. Time and frequency domain variables derived from oxygen saturation (SpO2) as well as linear and non-linear variables describing the RR series have been explored in recordings from 70 patients with suspected sleep apnea. We applied forward feature selection in order to select a minimal set of variables that are able to locate patterns indicating respiratory pauses. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to classify the presence of apnea during specific segments. The system will finally provide a global score indicating the presence of clinically significant apnea integrating the segment based apnea detection. LDA results in an accuracy of 87%; sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91% (AUC = 0.90) with a global classification of 97% when only oxygen saturation is used. In case of additionally including features from the RR series; the system performance improves to an accuracy of 87%; sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 92% (AUC = 0.92), with a global classification rate of 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Nonlinear Measures for the Detection of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy from Heart Rate Variability
Entropy 2015, 17(3), 1425-1440; doi:10.3390/e17031425
Received: 27 October 2014 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we compare three multiscale measures for their ability to discriminate between participants having cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and aged controls. CAN is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to an abnormal control of heart rate, so one would expect
[...] Read more.
In this work we compare three multiscale measures for their ability to discriminate between participants having cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and aged controls. CAN is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to an abnormal control of heart rate, so one would expect disease progression to manifest in changes to heart rate variability (HRV). We applied multiscale entropy (MSE), multi fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA), and Renyi entropy (RE) to recorded datasets of RR intervals. The latter measure provided the best separation (lowest p-value in Mann–Whitney tests) between classes of participants having CAN, early CAN or no CAN (controls). This comparison suggests the efficacy of RE as a measure for diagnosis of CAN and its progression, when compared to the other multiscale measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Entropic Measures of Complexity of Short-Term Dynamics of Nocturnal Heartbeats in an Aging Population
Entropy 2015, 17(3), 1253-1272; doi:10.3390/e17031253
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 21 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two entropy-based approaches are investigated to study patterns describing differences in time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. The first method explores matrices arising from networks of transitions constructed following events represented by a time series. The second method considers distributions of ordinal patterns of
[...] Read more.
Two entropy-based approaches are investigated to study patterns describing differences in time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. The first method explores matrices arising from networks of transitions constructed following events represented by a time series. The second method considers distributions of ordinal patterns of length three, whereby patterns with repeated values are counted as different patterns. Both methods provide estimators of dynamical aspects of short-term heartbeat signals obtained from nocturnal Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of healthy people of different ages and genders. The deceleration capacity, arising from the adjacency matrix of the network, and the entropy rate, resulting from the transition matrix of the network, are also calculated, and both significantly decay with aging. As people age, the permutation entropy grows, due to the increase in patterns with repeated values. All of these estimators describe in a consistent way changes in the beat-to-beat heart period dynamics caused by aging. An overall slowing down of heart period changes is observed, and an increase of permutation entropy results from the progressive increase of patterns with repeated values. This result points to the sympathetic drive becoming dominant in cardiac regulation of nocturnal heart rate with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessCommunication Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis: Application to Quantifying the Complex Volatility of Human Heartbeat Time Series
Entropy 2015, 17(3), 1197-1203; doi:10.3390/e17031197
Received: 26 January 2015 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We introduce a generalization of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis. The method is termed MSEn, where the subscript denotes the moment used to coarse-grain a time series. MSEμ, described previously, uses the mean value (first moment). Here, we focus on MSEσ2 , which uses
[...] Read more.
We introduce a generalization of multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis. The method is termed MSEn, where the subscript denotes the moment used to coarse-grain a time series. MSEμ, described previously, uses the mean value (first moment). Here, we focus on MSEσ2 , which uses the second moment, i.e., the variance. MSEσ2 quantifies the dynamics of the volatility (variance) of a signal over multiple time scales. We use the method to analyze the structure of heartbeat time series. We find that the dynamics of the volatility of heartbeat time series obtained from healthy young subjects is highly complex. Furthermore, we find that the multiscale complexity of the volatility, not only the multiscale complexity of the mean heart rate, degrades with aging and pathology. The “bursty” behavior of the dynamics may be related to intermittency in energy and information flows, as part of multiscale cycles of activation and recovery. Generalized MSE may also be useful in quantifying the dynamical properties of other physiologic and of non-physiologic time series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle Entropy Measures in the Assessment of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Cardiodepressive Vasovagal Syncope
Entropy 2015, 17(3), 1007-1022; doi:10.3390/e17031007
Received: 12 December 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sample entropy (SampEn) was reported to be useful in the assessment of the complexity of heart rate dynamics. Permutation entropy (PermEn) is a new measure based on the concept of order and was previously shown to be accurate for short, non-stationary datasets. The
[...] Read more.
Sample entropy (SampEn) was reported to be useful in the assessment of the complexity of heart rate dynamics. Permutation entropy (PermEn) is a new measure based on the concept of order and was previously shown to be accurate for short, non-stationary datasets. The aim of the present study is to assess if SampEn and PermEn obtained from baseline recordings might differentiate patients with various outcomes of the head-up tilt test (HUTT). Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices and several nonlinear parameters were calculated using 500 RR interval-long ECG recordings done before tilting in patients with a history suggesting vasovagal syncope. Groups of patients with so-called cardiodepressive vasovagal syncope (VVS_2) during HUTT and patients who did not faint during the test were compared. Two types of HUT tests were analyzed: with spontaneous (SB) or controlled breathing (CB). In our study, SampEn was higher in VVS_2 patients during SB, and PermEn was higher in VVS_2 patients during CB. Irrespective of the type of breathing during the test, SampEn and PermEn were similar in patients with the same type of reaction during HUTT. The use of several entropy-based parameters seems to be useful in HRV assessment in patients with vasovagal fainting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle Tone Entropy Analysis of Foetal Heart Rate Variability
Entropy 2015, 17(3), 1042-1053; doi:10.3390/e17031042
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
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Abstract
Development of the foetal autonomic nervous system can be indirectly understood by looking at the changes in beat to beat variability in foetal heart rates. This study presents Tone-Entropy (T-E) analysis of foetal heart rate variability (HRV) at multiple lags (1–8) to understand
[...] Read more.
Development of the foetal autonomic nervous system can be indirectly understood by looking at the changes in beat to beat variability in foetal heart rates. This study presents Tone-Entropy (T-E) analysis of foetal heart rate variability (HRV) at multiple lags (1–8) to understand the influence of gestational ages (early and late) on the development of the foetal autonomic nervous system (ANS). The analysis was based on foetal electrocardiograms (FECGs) of 46 healthy foetuses of 20–32 weeks (early group) and 22 foetuses of 35–41 weeks (late group). Tone represents sympatho-vagal balance and entropy the total autonomic activities. Results show that tone increases and entropy decreases at all lags for the late foetus group. On the other hand, tone decreases and entropy increases at lags 1–4 in the early foetus group. Increasing tone in late foetuses might represent significant maturation of sympathetic nervous systems because foetuses approaching to delivery period need increased sympathetic activity. T-E could be quantitative clinical index to determine the early foetuses from late ones on the basis of maturation of autonomic nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle Entropy Rate Maps of Complex Excitable Dynamics in Cardiac Monolayers
Entropy 2015, 17(3), 950-967; doi:10.3390/e17030950
Received: 16 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 February 2015 / Published: 26 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characterization of spatiotemporal complexity remains a challenging task. This holds in particular for the analysis of data from fluorescence imaging (optical mapping), which allows for the measurement of membrane potential and intracellular calcium at high spatial and temporal resolutions and, therefore, allows
[...] Read more.
The characterization of spatiotemporal complexity remains a challenging task. This holds in particular for the analysis of data from fluorescence imaging (optical mapping), which allows for the measurement of membrane potential and intracellular calcium at high spatial and temporal resolutions and, therefore, allows for an investigation of cardiac dynamics. Dominant frequency maps and the analysis of phase singularities are frequently used for this type of excitable media. These methods address some important aspects of cardiac dynamics; however, they only consider very specific properties of excitable media. To extend the scope of the analysis, we present a measure based on entropy rates for determining spatiotemporal complexity patterns of excitable media. Simulated data generated by the Aliev–Panfilov model and the cubic Barkley model are used to validate this method. Then, we apply it to optical mapping data from monolayers of cardiac cells from chicken embryos and compare our findings with dominant frequency maps and the analysis of phase singularities. The studies indicate that entropy rate maps provide additional information about local complexity, the origins of wave breakup and the development of patterns governing unstable wave propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle Analyses of Heart Rate, Respiration and Cardiorespiratory Coupling in Patients with Schizophrenia
Entropy 2015, 17(2), 483-501; doi:10.3390/e17020483
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular mortality rate. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to this cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not fully known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the cardiorespiratory influence by investigating heart
[...] Read more.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular mortality rate. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to this cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not fully known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the cardiorespiratory influence by investigating heart rate, respiration and the causal strength and direction of cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC), based mainly on entropy measures. We investigated 23 non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (SZ), comparing them to 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (CO). A significantly reduced complexity was found for the heart rate and a significantly increased complexity in respiration and CRC in SZ patients when compared to corresponding measurements from CO (p < 0.001). CRC analyses revealed a clear coupling, with a driver-responder relationship from respiration to heart rate in SZ patients. Moreover, a slight driver-responder relationship from heart rate to respiration could be recognized. These findings lead to the assumption that SZ should be considered to be a high-risk group for CVD. We hypothesize that the varying cardiorespiratory regulation contributes to the increased risk for cardiac mortality. Therefore, regular monitoring of the cardiorespiratory status of SZ is suggested to identify autonomic regulation impairment at an early stage—to develop timely and effective treatment and intervention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing the Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing
Entropy 2015, 17(1), 231-243; doi:10.3390/e17010231
Received: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects
[...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects without OSA (apnea hypopnea index, AHI < 5, n = 11), mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 10), moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 24), and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 45). Demographic (i.e., age, gender), anthropometric (i.e., body mass index, neck circumference), and polysomnographic (PSG) data were recorded and compared among the different groups. For each subject, R-R intervals (RRI) from 10 segments of 10-minute electrocardiogram recordings during non-rapid eye movement sleep at stage N2 were acquired and analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV) and sample entropy using multiscale entropy index (MEI) that was divided into small scale (MEISS, scale 1–5) and large scale (MEILS, scale 6–10). Our results not only demonstrated that MEISS could successfully distinguish normal snoring subjects and those with mild OSA from those with moderate and severe disease, but also revealed good correlation between MEISS and AHI with Spearman correlation analysis (r = −0.684, p < 0.001). Therefore, using the two parameters of EEG and ECG, MEISS may serve as a simple preliminary screening tool for assessing the severity of OSA before proceeding to PSG analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle Information Decomposition in Bivariate Systems: Theory and Application to Cardiorespiratory Dynamics
Entropy 2015, 17(1), 277-303; doi:10.3390/e17010277
Received: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 12 January 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the framework of information dynamics, the temporal evolution of coupled systems can be studied by decomposing the predictive information about an assigned target system into amounts quantifying the information stored inside the system and the information transferred to it. While information storage
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In the framework of information dynamics, the temporal evolution of coupled systems can be studied by decomposing the predictive information about an assigned target system into amounts quantifying the information stored inside the system and the information transferred to it. While information storage and transfer are computed through the known self-entropy (SE) and transfer entropy (TE), an alternative decomposition evidences the so-called cross entropy (CE) and conditional SE (cSE), quantifying the cross information and internal information of the target system, respectively. This study presents a thorough evaluation of SE, TE, CE and cSE as quantities related to the causal statistical structure of coupled dynamic processes. First, we investigate the theoretical properties of these measures, providing the conditions for their existence and assessing the meaning of the information theoretic quantity that each of them reflects. Then, we present an approach for the exact computation of information dynamics based on the linear Gaussian approximation, and exploit this approach to characterize the behavior of SE, TE, CE and cSE in benchmark systems with known dynamics. Finally, we exploit these measures to study cardiorespiratory dynamics measured from healthy subjects during head-up tilt and paced breathing protocols. Our main result is that the combined evaluation of the measures of information dynamics allows to infer the causal effects associated with the observed dynamics and to interpret the alteration of these effects with changing experimental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Entropies to Detect Sleep Apnoea in Heart Rate Variability Recordings from Men and Women
Entropy 2015, 17(1), 123-141; doi:10.3390/e17010123
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heart rate variability (HRV) provides useful information about heart dynamics both under healthy and pathological conditions. Entropy measures have shown their utility to characterize these dynamics. In this paper, we assess the ability of spectral entropy (SE) and multiscale entropy (MsE) to characterize
[...] Read more.
Heart rate variability (HRV) provides useful information about heart dynamics both under healthy and pathological conditions. Entropy measures have shown their utility to characterize these dynamics. In this paper, we assess the ability of spectral entropy (SE) and multiscale entropy (MsE) to characterize the sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) in HRV recordings from 188 subjects. Additionally, we evaluate eventual differences in these analyses depending on the gender. We found that the SE computed from the very low frequency band and the low frequency band showed ability to characterize SAHS regardless the gender; and that MsE features may be able to distinguish gender specificities. SE and MsE showed complementarity to detect SAHS, since several features from both analyses were automatically selected by the forward-selection backward-elimination algorithm. Finally, SAHS was modelled through logistic regression (LR) by using optimum sets of selected features. Modelling SAHS by genders reached significant higher performance than doing it in a jointly way. The highest diagnostic ability was reached by modelling SAHS in women. The LR classifier achieved 85.2% accuracy (Acc) and 0.951 area under the ROC curve (AROC). LR for men reached 77.6% Acc and 0.895 AROC, whereas LR for the whole set reached 72.3% Acc and 0.885 AROC. Our results show the usefulness of the SE and MsE analyses of HRV to detect SAHS, as well as suggest that, when using HRV, SAHS may be more accurately modelled if data are separated by gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Postural Challenge on the Dependence of the Cardiovascular Control Complexity on Age
Entropy 2014, 16(12), 6686-6704; doi:10.3390/e16126686
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short-term complexity of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was computed to detect age and gender influences over cardiovascular control in resting supine condition (REST) and during standing (STAND). Healthy subjects (n = 110, men = 55) were equally divided
[...] Read more.
Short-term complexity of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was computed to detect age and gender influences over cardiovascular control in resting supine condition (REST) and during standing (STAND). Healthy subjects (n = 110, men = 55) were equally divided into five groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; and 61–70 years of age). HP and SAP series were recorded for 15 min at REST and during STAND. A normalized complexity index (NCI) based on conditional entropy was assessed. At REST we found that both NCIHP and NCISAP decreased with age in the overall population, but only women were responsible for this trend. During STAND we observed that both NCIHP and NCISAP were unrelated to age in the overall population, even when divided by gender. When the variation of NCI in response to STAND (ΔNCI = NCI at REST-NCI during STAND) was computed individually, we found that ΔNCIHP progressively decreased with age in the overall population, and women were again responsible for this trend. Conversely, ΔNCISAP was unrelated to age and gender. This study stresses that the complexity of cardiovascular control and its ability to respond to stressors are more importantly lost with age in women than in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Entropy Analysis of RR and QT Interval Variability during Orthostatic and Mental Stress in Healthy Subjects
Entropy 2014, 16(12), 6384-6393; doi:10.3390/e16126384
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG
[...] Read more.
Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Open AccessArticle Multiscale Compression Entropy of Microvascular Blood FlowSignals: Comparison of Results from Laser Speckle Contrastand Laser Doppler Flowmetry Data in Healthy Subjects
Entropy 2014, 16(11), 5777-5795; doi:10.3390/e16115777
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microvascular perfusion is commonly used to study the peripheral cardiovascular system. Microvascular blood flow can be continuously and non-invasively monitored with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) or with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). These two optical-based techniques give perfusion values in arbitrary units. Our
[...] Read more.
Microvascular perfusion is commonly used to study the peripheral cardiovascular system. Microvascular blood flow can be continuously and non-invasively monitored with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) or with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). These two optical-based techniques give perfusion values in arbitrary units. Our goal is to better understand the perfusion time series given by each technique. For this purpose, we propose a nonlinear complexity analysis of LSCI and LDF time series recorded simultaneously in nine healthy subjects. This is performed through the computation of their multiscale compression entropy. The results obtained with LSCI time series computed from different regions of interest (ROI) sizes are examined. Our findings show that, for LSCI and LDF time series, compression entropy values are less than one for all of the scales analyzed. This suggests that, for all scales, there are repetitive structures within the data fluctuations. Moreover, at the largest scales studied, LDF signals seem to have structures that are different from those Entropy 2014, 16 5778 of Gaussian white noise. By opposition, this is not observed for LSCI time series computed from small ROI sizes Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise
Entropy 2014, 16(11), 5698-5711; doi:10.3390/e16115698
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO) and dynamic (DYN) exercise of the lower limbs on heart
[...] Read more.
Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO) and dynamic (DYN) exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years) were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001). HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures). Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn) was lower during ISO (p < 0.001). Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Pass Filtering Approach via Empirical Mode Decomposition Improves Short-Scale Entropy-Based Complexity Estimation of QT Interval Variability in Long QT Syndrome Type 1 Patients
Entropy 2014, 16(9), 4839-4854; doi:10.3390/e16094839
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Entropy-based complexity of cardiovascular variability at short time scales is largely dependent on the noise and/or action of neural circuits operating at high frequencies. This study proposes a technique for canceling fast variations from cardiovascular variability, thus limiting the effect of these overwhelming
[...] Read more.
Entropy-based complexity of cardiovascular variability at short time scales is largely dependent on the noise and/or action of neural circuits operating at high frequencies. This study proposes a technique for canceling fast variations from cardiovascular variability, thus limiting the effect of these overwhelming influences on entropy-based complexity. The low-pass filtering approach is based on the computation of the fastest intrinsic mode function via empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and its subtraction from the original variability. Sample entropy was exploited to estimate complexity. The procedure was applied to heart period (HP) and QT (interval from Q-wave onset to T-wave end) variability derived from 24-hour Holter recordings in 14 non-mutation carriers (NMCs) and 34 mutation carriers (MCs) subdivided into 11 asymptomatic MCs (AMCs) and 23 symptomatic MCs (SMCs). All individuals belonged to the same family developing long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) via KCNQ1-A341V mutation. We found that complexity indexes computed over EMD-filtered QT variability differentiated AMCs from NMCs and detected the effect of beta-blocker therapy, while complexity indexes calculated over EMD-filtered HP variability separated AMCs from SMCs. The EMD-based filtering method enhanced features of the cardiovascular control that otherwise would have remained hidden by the dominant presence of noise and/or fast physiological variations, thus improving classification in LQT1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Modified Entropy Computational Method in Assessing the Complexity of Pulse Wave Velocity Signals in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects
Entropy 2014, 16(7), 4032-4043; doi:10.3390/e16074032
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using 1000 successive points of a pulse wave velocity (PWV) series, we previously distinguished healthy from diabetic subjects with multi-scale entropy (MSE) using a scale factor of 10. One major limitation is the long time for data acquisition (i.e., 20 min). This
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Using 1000 successive points of a pulse wave velocity (PWV) series, we previously distinguished healthy from diabetic subjects with multi-scale entropy (MSE) using a scale factor of 10. One major limitation is the long time for data acquisition (i.e., 20 min). This study aimed at validating the sensitivity of a novel method, short time MSE (sMSE) that utilized a substantially smaller sample size (i.e., 600 consecutive points), in differentiating the complexity of PWV signals both in simulation and in human subjects that were divided into four groups: healthy young (Group 1; n = 24) and middle-aged (Group 2; n = 30) subjects without known cardiovascular disease and middle-aged individuals with well-controlled (Group 3; n = 18) and poorly-controlled (Group 4; n = 22) diabetes mellitus type 2. The results demonstrated that although conventional MSE could differentiate the subjects using 1000 consecutive PWV series points, sensitivity was lost using only 600 points. Simulation study revealed consistent results. By contrast, the novel sMSE method produced significant differences in entropy in both simulation and testing subjects. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that using a novel sMSE approach for PWV analysis, the time for data acquisition can be substantially reduced to that required for 600 cardiac cycles (~10 min) with remarkable preservation of sensitivity in differentiating among healthy, aged, and diabetic populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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