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Entropy 2015, 17(3), 1042-1053;

Tone Entropy Analysis of Foetal Heart Rate Variability

Biomedical Engineering Department, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Institute of International Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
Centre for Pattern Recognition and Data Analytics, Deakin University, VIC 3216, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Niels Wessel
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [873 KB, uploaded 2 March 2015]


Development of the foetal autonomic nervous system can be indirectly understood by looking at the changes in beat to beat variability in foetal heart rates. This study presents Tone-Entropy (T-E) analysis of foetal heart rate variability (HRV) at multiple lags (1–8) to understand the influence of gestational ages (early and late) on the development of the foetal autonomic nervous system (ANS). The analysis was based on foetal electrocardiograms (FECGs) of 46 healthy foetuses of 20–32 weeks (early group) and 22 foetuses of 35–41 weeks (late group). Tone represents sympatho-vagal balance and entropy the total autonomic activities. Results show that tone increases and entropy decreases at all lags for the late foetus group. On the other hand, tone decreases and entropy increases at lags 1–4 in the early foetus group. Increasing tone in late foetuses might represent significant maturation of sympathetic nervous systems because foetuses approaching to delivery period need increased sympathetic activity. T-E could be quantitative clinical index to determine the early foetuses from late ones on the basis of maturation of autonomic nervous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: foetal electrocardiogram; foetal heart rate variability; Tone-Entropy analysis; foetal autonomic nervous system foetal electrocardiogram; foetal heart rate variability; Tone-Entropy analysis; foetal autonomic nervous system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Khandoker, A.; Karmakar, C.; Kimura, Y.; Endo, M.; Oshio, S.; Palaniswami, M. Tone Entropy Analysis of Foetal Heart Rate Variability. Entropy 2015, 17, 1042-1053.

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