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Entropy 2015, 17(1), 123-141; doi:10.3390/e17010123

Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Entropies to Detect Sleep Apnoea in Heart Rate Variability Recordings from Men and Women

1
Biomedical Engineering Group, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
2
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida Ramón y Cajal 7, 47007 Valladolid, Spain
3
Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Calle Dulzaina 2, 47012 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 31 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Abstract

Heart rate variability (HRV) provides useful information about heart dynamics both under healthy and pathological conditions. Entropy measures have shown their utility to characterize these dynamics. In this paper, we assess the ability of spectral entropy (SE) and multiscale entropy (MsE) to characterize the sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) in HRV recordings from 188 subjects. Additionally, we evaluate eventual differences in these analyses depending on the gender. We found that the SE computed from the very low frequency band and the low frequency band showed ability to characterize SAHS regardless the gender; and that MsE features may be able to distinguish gender specificities. SE and MsE showed complementarity to detect SAHS, since several features from both analyses were automatically selected by the forward-selection backward-elimination algorithm. Finally, SAHS was modelled through logistic regression (LR) by using optimum sets of selected features. Modelling SAHS by genders reached significant higher performance than doing it in a jointly way. The highest diagnostic ability was reached by modelling SAHS in women. The LR classifier achieved 85.2% accuracy (Acc) and 0.951 area under the ROC curve (AROC). LR for men reached 77.6% Acc and 0.895 AROC, whereas LR for the whole set reached 72.3% Acc and 0.885 AROC. Our results show the usefulness of the SE and MsE analyses of HRV to detect SAHS, as well as suggest that, when using HRV, SAHS may be more accurately modelled if data are separated by gender. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep apnoea; spectral entropy; multiscale entropy; heart rate variability sleep apnoea; spectral entropy; multiscale entropy; heart rate variability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gutiérrez-Tobal, G.C.; Álvarez, D.; Gomez-Pilar, J.; del Campo, F.; Hornero, R. Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Entropies to Detect Sleep Apnoea in Heart Rate Variability Recordings from Men and Women. Entropy 2015, 17, 123-141.

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