Next Article in Journal
The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH) Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water
Next Article in Special Issue
Multiscale Compression Entropy of Microvascular Blood FlowSignals: Comparison of Results from Laser Speckle Contrastand Laser Doppler Flowmetry Data in Healthy Subjects
Previous Article in Journal
A Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Maximum Entropy Methods in Homogeneous Clusters
Previous Article in Special Issue
Low-Pass Filtering Approach via Empirical Mode Decomposition Improves Short-Scale Entropy-Based Complexity Estimation of QT Interval Variability in Long QT Syndrome Type 1 Patients
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2014, 16(11), 5698-5711; doi:10.3390/e16115698

Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

1
Center for Life Science Automation, University of Rostock, F.-Barnewitz-Str. 8, Rostock 18119, Germany
2
Institute of Sport Science, University of Rostock, Ulmenstr. 69, Rostock 18057, Germany
3
Federal Athletic Association Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Trotzenburger Weg 15, Rostock 18057, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [696 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO) and dynamic (DYN) exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years) were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001). HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures). Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn) was lower during ISO (p < 0.001). Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: sample entropy; circulation; heart rate variability; autonomic nervous system; exercise; autonomic space sample entropy; circulation; heart rate variability; autonomic nervous system; exercise; autonomic space
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Weippert, M.; Behrens, M.; Rieger, A.; Behrens, K. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise. Entropy 2014, 16, 5698-5711.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top