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Entropy 2014, 16(12), 6686-6704; doi:10.3390/e16126686

Effect of the Postural Challenge on the Dependence of the Cardiovascular Control Complexity on Age

1
Cardiovascular Physiotherapy Laboratory, Nucleus of Research in Physical Exercise, Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
2
Research Laboratory on Healthy Aging, Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP, Brazil
3
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Italy
4
Department of Cardiothoracic, Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
6
IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics)
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Abstract

Short-term complexity of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) was computed to detect age and gender influences over cardiovascular control in resting supine condition (REST) and during standing (STAND). Healthy subjects (n = 110, men = 55) were equally divided into five groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; and 61–70 years of age). HP and SAP series were recorded for 15 min at REST and during STAND. A normalized complexity index (NCI) based on conditional entropy was assessed. At REST we found that both NCIHP and NCISAP decreased with age in the overall population, but only women were responsible for this trend. During STAND we observed that both NCIHP and NCISAP were unrelated to age in the overall population, even when divided by gender. When the variation of NCI in response to STAND (ΔNCI = NCI at REST-NCI during STAND) was computed individually, we found that ΔNCIHP progressively decreased with age in the overall population, and women were again responsible for this trend. Conversely, ΔNCISAP was unrelated to age and gender. This study stresses that the complexity of cardiovascular control and its ability to respond to stressors are more importantly lost with age in women than in men. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; gender; standing; heart rate variability; blood pressure variability; complexity; corrected conditional entropy; autonomic nervous system aging; gender; standing; heart rate variability; blood pressure variability; complexity; corrected conditional entropy; autonomic nervous system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Catai, A.M.; Takahashi, A.C.; Perseguini, N.M.; Milan, J.C.; Minatel, V.; Rehder-Santos, P.; Marchi, A.; Bari, V.; Porta, A. Effect of the Postural Challenge on the Dependence of the Cardiovascular Control Complexity on Age. Entropy 2014, 16, 6686-6704.

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